Monday, May 25, 2020

Biography of Christina, Unconventional Queen of Sweden

Queen Christina of Sweden (December 18, 1626–April 19, 1689) reigned for nearly 22 years, from Nov. 6, 1632, to June 5, 1654. Shes remembered for her abdication and her conversion from Lutheranism to Roman Catholicism. She also was known for being an unusually well-educated woman for her time, a patron of the arts, and, according to rumors, a lesbian and an intersexual.  She was formally crowned in 1650. Fast Facts: Queen Christina of Sweden Known For: Independent-minded queen of SwedenAlso Known As:  Christina Vasa, Kristina Wasa, Maria Christina Alexandra, Count Dohna,  Minerva  of the North, Protectress of the Jews at RomeBorn: December 18, 1626 in Stockholm, SwedenParents: King Gustavus Adolphus Vasa, Maria EleonoraDied: April 19, 1689 in Rome, Italy Early Life Christina was born Dec. 18, 1626, to King Gustavus Adolphus Vasa of Sweden and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, now a state in Germany. She was her fathers only surviving legitimate child, and thus his only heir.  Her mother was a German princess, daughter of John Sigismund, elector of Brandenburg, and granddaughter of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia.  She married Gustavus Adolphus against the will of her brother George William, who had by that time succeeded to the office of elector of Brandenberg. Her childhood came during a long European cold spell called the Little Ice Age  and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648),  when Sweden sided with other Protestant nations against the Habsburg Empire, a Catholic power centered in Austria. Her fathers role in the Thirty Years War may have turned the tide from the Catholics to the Protestants. He was considered a master of military tactics and instituted political reforms, including expanding education and the rights of the peasantry. After his death in 1632, he was designated the Great (Magnus) by the Swedish Estates of the Realm. Her mother, disappointed to have had a girl, showed little affection for her. Her father was frequently away at war, and Maria Eleonoras mental state was made worse by those absences.  As a baby, Christina was subjected to several suspicious accidents. Christinas father ordered that she be educated as a boy. She became known for her education and for her patronage of learning and the arts. She was referred to as the Minerva of the North, referring to the Roman goddess of the arts, and the Swedish capital Stockholm became known as Athens of the North.   Queen When her father was killed in battle in 1632, the 6-year-old girl became Queen Christina. Her mother, who was described as being hysterical in her grief, was excluded from being part of the regency. Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna ruled Sweden as regent until Queen Christina was of age. Oxenstierna had been an adviser to Christinas father and continued in that role after Christina was crowned. Christinas mothers parental rights were terminated in 1636, though Maria Eleonora continued to attempt to visit Christina. The government tried to settle Maria Eleonora first in Denmark and then back in her home in Germany, but her homeland would not accept her until Christina secured an allowance for her support. Reigning Even during the regency, Christina followed her own mind. Against Oxenstiernas advice, she initiated the end of the Thirty Years War, culminating with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. She launched a Court of Learning by virtue of her patronage of art, theater, and music. Her efforts attracted French philosopher Rene Descartes, who came to Stockholm and stayed for two years. His plans to establish an academy in Stockholm collapsed when he suddenly became ill with pneumonia and died in 1650. Her coronation finally came in 1650 in a ceremony attended by her mother. Relationships Queen Christina appointed her cousin Carl Gustav (Karl Charles Gustavus) as her successor. Some historians believe that she was romantically linked to him earlier, but they never married. Instead, her relationship with lady-in-waiting Countess Ebbe Belle Sparre launched rumors of lesbianism. Surviving letters from Christina to the countess are easily described as love letters, though it is difficult to apply modern classifications such as lesbian to people in a time when such categorizations were not known. They shared a bed at times, but this practice did not necessarily imply a sexual relationship. The countess married and left the court before Christinas abdication, but they continued to exchange passionate letters. Abdication Difficulties with issues of taxation and governance and problematic relations with Poland plagued Christinas last years as queen, and in 1651 she first proposed that she abdicate. Her council convinced her to stay, but she had some sort of breakdown and spent much time confined to her rooms. She finally abdicated officially in 1654. Supposed reasons were that she didnt want to marry or that  she wanted to convert the state religion from Lutheranism to Roman Catholicism, but the real motive is still argued by historians. Her mother opposed her abdication, but Christina provided that her mothers allowance would be secure even without her daughter ruling Sweden. Rome Christina, now calling herself Maria Christina Alexandra, left Sweden a few days after her official abdication, traveling disguised as a man. When her mother died in 1655, Christina was living in Brussels. She made her way to Rome, where she lived in a palazzo filled with art and books that became a lively center of culture as a salon. She had converted to Roman Catholicism by the time she arrived in Rome. The former queen became a favorite of the Vatican in the religious battle for the hearts and minds of 17th century Europe. She was aligned with a free-thinking branch of Roman Catholicism. Christina also embroiled herself in political and religious intrigue, first between the French and Spanish factions in Rome. Failed Schemes In 1656, Christina launched an attempt to become queen of Naples. A member of Christinas household, the marquis of Monaldesco, betrayed plans of Christina and the French to the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Christina retaliated by having Monaldesco executed in her presence. For this act, she was for some time marginalized in Roman society, though she eventually became involved again in church politics. In another failed scheme, Christina attempted to have herself made queen of Poland. Her confidant and adviser, Cardinal Decio Azzolino, was rumored to be her lover, and in one scheme Christina attempted to win the papacy for Azzolino. Christina died on April 19, 1689, at age 62, having named Cardinal Azzolino as her sole heir. She was buried in St. Peters Basilica, an unusual honor for a woman. Legacy Queen Christinas abnormal interest (for her era) in pursuits normally reserved for males, occasional dressing in male attire, and persistent stories about her relationships have led to disagreements among historians as to the nature of her sexuality. In 1965, her body was exhumed for testing to see if she had signs of hermaphroditism or intersexuality. The results were inconclusive, though they indicated that her skeleton was typically female in structure. Her life spanned Renaissance Sweden to Baroque Rome and left a record of a woman who, through privilege and strength of character, challenged what it meant to be a woman in her era. She also left behind her thoughts in letters, maxims, an unfinished autobiography, and notes in the margins of her books. Sources Buckley, Veronica.  Christina, Queen of Sweden: The Restless Life of a European Eccentric. Harper Perennial, 2005.Mattern, Joanne.  Queen Christina of Sweden.  Capstone Press, 2009.Landy, Marcia and Villarejo, Amy.  Queen Christina.   British Film Institute,1995.Christina of Sweden.5 Facts About Queen Christina of Sweden.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Story Of A Life - 1361 Words

In 1983 Aharon Appelfeld published a work of fiction titled Tzili that closely resembled his own personal Holocaust experiences. This work of fiction revolves around a maturing teen who is alone and on the run during the Holocaust. In Tzili, Appelfeld brings to life his characters, which include Tzili, Katrina, Mark, and Linda. Throughout this literary analysis Appelfelds’ memoir Story of a Life will be used to access the parallels that exist between Appelfeld’s own personal experience and his fictional work Tzili. As a Jewish child Aharon Appelfeld spent years on the run, always in hiding from those who would turn him over to the Nazis. Throughout his journey Appelfeld encounters many obstacles that shape who he becomes as a person. In†¦show more content†¦One of the first characters Tzili encounters in the novel is an old prostitute named Katrina. Katrina takes Tzili in due to the fact that Tzili informs her that she is Maria’s daughter. In the beginni ng Katrina is caring and protective of Tzili. Even though Katrina may have had a suspicion that Tzili is Jewish, she still provides her with food and shelter. Overtime Katrina becomes verbally and physically abusive towards Tzili, throwing things at Tzili when Tzili does not immediately get her what she wants. When Katrina demands Tzili to entertain one of her customers, Tzili realizes that it is time for her to leave and find a new place to stay. Later on in the story, Tzili encounters a Jewish refugee named Mark. Mark is a Jewish man who escaped a concentration camp but was unable to bring his wife and children with him. This leaves Mark with the feelings of intense gilt, and in order to escape this guilt, Mark turns to addictive behaviors such as drinking and smoking. As the relationship grows between Mark and Tzili, a sense of co-dependence forms leading to the emergence of a romantic relationship. Even though this relationship is loving in nature, Mark develops the sense that h e is becoming to dependent on Tzili. This leads to Mark deciding to venture into the village to retrieve supplies where in the end, the readers infer Mark was captured. Lastly, Tzili meets a refugee named Linda, who isShow MoreRelatedThe Story Of Life1464 Words   |  6 Pagespraying instead of fighting. Harold nervously said, â€Å" The chief told us we were too young to fight so we are praying that the fight stops.† â€Å"Ok, you can go.† said the guard Jeffrey was in awe as he saw what was on the inside of the church. There were stories about the tribe written in cursive with ink and huge tile paintings everywhere, but the one thing that caught his eye was the gun. Jeffrey walked over and found some writing on the gun. It read J.H.T.G. It kept repeating in his head. J.H.T.G. JRead MoreMy Story : The Story Of My Life770 Words   |  4 PagesMy story starts off like any other story. You have the typical family having their firstborn. It was all normal for the most part I lived in Miami when I was born and then I moved to New Jersey when I was six months old and I lived there for about two or three years and I don’t remember much but I remember we lived in a little apartment complex in west New Jersey. After that we moved back down to Miami in 2005 and then my sister was born in January of 2006 in Miami. We lived in Miami for about oneRead MoreA Short Story : A Story Of My Life1318 Words   |  6 Pagesfather or his family was on this eventful day. My mother was born out of wedlock as well, my grandma and grandfather weren’t together, and my mother was the second of six girls on my grandma’s side and maybe the third on my grandfather’s side. Long story short my grandmother, had six daughters with three different men and she married the father of her last two children, that’s the man who I grew up with as grandpa. My mom’s father has a lot of children and I may know half of them, he married the motherRead MoreThe Story of My Life1693 Words   |  7 PagesForm and Content The Story of My Life is an account of the early years of a woman who overcame incredible problems to become an accomplished, literate adult. The book does not give a complete account of the author’s life, as it was written when she was still a college student. It is, however, a unique account of one young woman’s passage from almost total despair to success in a world mostly populated by hearing and seeing people. This book is relatively short, but the modern editions also includeRead MoreShort Story : A Story On Its Life1151 Words   |  5 Pagesway to detox all of the stupidity she endured in her daily life. Today, she decided to up her game and max out at 60 minutes. Already 50 minutes into it, she had to mentally push past the discomfort. Distracting herself, she pictured her last kill. Michael on the slab. The box cutters tearing into his skin. His muffled cries of pain. The final cut. The rush of blood draining from his throat. Watching the light in his eyes fade out as his life floated away. Erin relished in the memories. What excitedRead MoreThe Story Of My Life1331 Words   |  6 Pageshave to say is ‘howzit?’ You are a wonder, my dear. What even happened out there? No one told me,† I badger. â€Å"Well†¦ I was driving home from the horrid interview, another story for another day, and some dude loses control of the wheel, hits the back side of my car and I sort of hit a palm tree,† she slowly explains. â€Å"Long story short, your car is totaled and I’m sorry.† â€Å"If I could, I would slap you across the head. I don’t care about the dumb car, idiot. All that matters is that you’re okayRead MoreThe Story Of My Life Essay1725 Words   |  7 Pageslead a fragmented life in a fragmented Island as she is already a disillusioned being with no sense of understanding or a healthy bondage between herself and her family members. The sinister charm of the Island calls her to more meaningful and satisfying existence as a gift witnessed very many magic activities of her father. She craves for such a bewitching life that is possible only in Island along with her unborn child. As a woman harboring romantic thoughts about the witching life of magic and wonderRead MoreShort Story : The Story Of Its Life946 Words   |  4 PagesIm fine. Been through much worse than that, trust me. You need another drink? We both looked at his glass, which was still half full. Uh, no, I think Ill be okay for awhile. Who was that anyway? I shrugged. Never seen any of them before in my life. His eyebrows rose in surprise. Oh. Nevermind then. I shook off the thought that he had something else to say before returning to work. It was close to two in the morning by the time the last inebriated customer other than Dean paid his billRead MoreA Short Story : The Story Of My Life774 Words   |  4 Pagesfloor from what the doctors diagnosed her with â€Å"unclassified cardiomyopathy†. Not only did death caused me to worry for my family, but it also even made me worry for my future. With almost losing a special person, I realized that life can suddenly be taken from you. Life is valuable and should not be taken for granted and to savor everything. Whether we like it or not, most individuals, at some point, deal with a hospital. As a child, I have always been infatuated with how a hospital works. You neverRead MoreThe Story of My Life2883 Words   |  12 PagesThe Story of My Life by: Helen Keller I. INTRODUCTION Helen Keller overcame different difficult obstacles of deafness and blindness to become an influential lecturer and social activist. She has become, in American culture, an icon of perseverance, respected and honored by readers, historians, and activists. Helen began working on The Story of My Life while she was a student at Radcliffe College, and it was first published in installments in Ladies’ Home Journal. Helping her was an editor

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Ethical Considerations in Identifying and Reporting Child Abuse - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2162 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/04/08 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Child Abuse Essay Did you like this example? Child abuse is a crucial ethical issue for mental health practitioners to understand and be competent in addressing. According to Childhelp (2018), a nonprofit organization dedicated to the prevention and treatment of child abuse, child abuse occurs when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to act, causes injury, death, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to a child (para. 1). In certain instances, child abuse can also be committed by peers or siblings. There are four distinct forms of child abuse, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Physical abuse is the most common form of child abuse, with approximately 28.3% of adults reporting experiences of physical abuse in childhood (Childhelp, 2018). Physical abuse involves physical injury to a child, such as bruises, blisters, burns, cuts, scratches, broken bones, sprains, dislocation of joints, internal injuries, brain damage, or death, resulting from striking, kicking, burning, biting, hair pulling, choking, throwing, shoving, whipping or any other action that injures a child (Childhelp, 2018, para. 2). Physical abuse does not include acts of physical discipline, given that the action does not injure or impair the child. Signs of physical abuse to a child can be both physical and behavioral. Physical signs may include visible or severe injuries, any injury to a child who is not yet crawling, injuries at different stages of healing, unexplained injuries, injuries explained in a way that do not make sense, injuries with distinctives shapes, and/or patterns in frequency, timing, or history of injuries, such as after weekends, vacations, or school absences (Childhelp, 2018). Behavioral signs of physical abuse include aggression towards peers, pets, or other animals; being fearful of parents or other adults; withdrawal, depression, or anxiety; wearing long sleeves out of season; violent themes in art or fantasy; sleep disruptions such as insomnia or nightmares; reports of injury or severe discipline; immaturity, acting out, or other behavioral extremes; and/or self-destructive behavior or attitudes (Childhelp, 2018). Parents and caregivers may also show signs of committing physical abuse, including refusal or inability to explain the childs injury, explaining the injury in a way that does not make sense, aggression towards the child, appearing overly anxious about the childs behavior, delaying or preventing medical care for the child, taking the child to different doctors or hospitals, isolating the child from social activities, and/or having a hist ory of violence or abuse (Childhelp, 2018). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ethical Considerations in Identifying and Reporting Child Abuse" essay for you Create order The second most prevalent form of child abuse is sexual abuse. Sexual abuse involves using a child in sex acts or for sexual gratification (Childhelp, 2018). This may take place in the form of non-contact or contact abuse. Non-contact abuse involves making a child view a sex act, making a child view or show sex organs, or talking to a child inappropriately about sex. Contact abuse includes fondling, oral sex, penetration, forcing the child to perform a sex act, or involving the child in prostitution or pornography. According to Childhelp (2018), one in every five adults reports being sexually abused as a child. Physical signs of sexual abuse in children may be more apparent to medical practitioners but may also be observed by mental health practitioners working in an integrative care setting. These signs include difficulty sitting or walking; bowel problems; torn, stained, or bloody undergarments; bleeding, bruising, pain, swelling, or itching of the genital area; frequent urinary tr act or yeast infections; and/or any sexually transmitted disease or related symptoms (Childhelp, 2018). Behavioral signs of sexual abuse may include not wanting to change clothes (i.e.: for P.E.); withdrawn, depressed, or anxious affect; eating disorders or preoccupation with ones body; aggression, delinquency, or poor peer relationships; poor self-image; poor self-care; lack of confidence; sudden absenteeism or decline in school performance; substance use, running away, reckless behavior, or suicide attempts; sleep disturbances, such as fear of bedtime, nightmares, or bedwetting at an advanced age; acting out sexually or excessive masturbation; unusual or repetitive self-soothing behaviors; advanced or unusual sexual behavior or knowledge; and/or reports of sexual abuse (Childhelp, 2018). Caregivers may also exhibit signs of being sexually abusive towards a child, including failing to supervise the child, acting as an unstable adult presence in the childs life, appearing jealous or possessive, having troubled or dysfunctional sexual relationships, and/or relying on the child for emotional support (Childhelp, 2018). Child maltreatment can also take place in the form of emotional abuse, which occurs when a parents or caregivers actions [harm] a childs mental and social development, or [cause] severe emotional harm (Childhelp, 2018, para. 4). This may occur as a single incident, but generally involves a pattern of behavior that causes damage over time. Emotional abuse includes rejecting or ignoring a child by telling them that they are unwanted/unloved, invalidating the childs feelings, breaking promises, interrupting the child in conversation, or not providing affection; shaming or humiliating a child by calling them names, criticizing, berating, or mocking the child, or attacking the childs sense of self-worth; terrorizing a child by accusing, threatening, manipulating, or yelling at the child, or setting the child up for failure; isolating a child by depriving them of social contact, confining them to small spaces, or depriving them of play or stimulation; and/or corrupting a child by involving them in criminal activity or encouraging misbehavior (Childhelp, 2018, para. 4). According to Childhelp (2018), 10.6% of adults report being emotionally abused in childhood. Signs that a child may be experiencing emotional abuse include developmental delays; wetting their bed or pants; speech disorders; health problems like ulcers or skin disorders; obesity and weight fluctuation; habits like sucking, biting, or rocking; learning disabilities; being overly compliant or defensive, exhibiting extreme emotions, aggression, or withdrawal; anxiety or phobias; sleep disorders; destructive or anti-social behaviors, such as violence, cruelty, vandalism, stealing, cheating, or lying; exhibiting behavior that is inappropriate for their age; and/or suicidal thoughts or actions (Childhelp, 2018). Signs that a caregiver may be emotionally abusive include routinely ignoring, criticizing, yelling at, or blaming the child; playing favorites with one sibling over another; exhibiting poor anger mana gement or emotional regulation; having unstable relationships with other adults; disrespecting authority; having a history of violence or abuse; and/or having an untreated mental illness or addiction (Childhelp, 2018). The fourth type of child maltreatment, neglect, often requires a pattern of behavior over time and can occur in the form of physical, emotional, medical, and educational neglect. Physical neglect involves depriving a child of adequate supervision, clothing, food, and shelter. This may include leaving the child with an inadequate caregiver, leaving the child in another persons custody for an extended period of time, failing to provide a child with healthy food and drink, failing to ensure adequate personal hygiene, or exposing the child to unsafe or unsanitary environments or situations (Childhelp, 2018). Emotional neglect occurs when a parent or caregiver does not provide adequate affection and attention for a child to feel loved and supported (Childhelp, 2018). This may include isolating the child from friends and loved ones, exposing the child to severe or repeated violence (especially domestic violence), allowing a child to abuse substances or engage in criminal activity, or not s eeking treatment for a child showing signs of a psychological illness (Childhelp, 2018). Medical neglect occurs when a parent does not provide a child with appropriate treatment for injuries or illness or deprives a child of basic preventive medical or dental care (Childhelp, 2018). Lastly, educational neglect occurs when a parent limits a childs opportunities for academic success by allowing the child to miss too much school, not enrolling the child in school, or preventing the child from obtaining necessary special education services. Signs that a child may be experiencing neglect include wearing clothing that is the wrong size, tattered, dirty, or not appropriate for the weather; being hungry, stockpiling and seeking food, or showing signs of malnutrition (i.e.: distended abdomen, protruding bones); having a very low body weight and height for their age; often appearing tired or listless; displaying poor hygiene; talking about caring for younger siblings or not having a caregiver at home; having untreated medical or dental problems or incomplete immunizations; and/or truancy, frequently incomplete homework, or frequent school changes (Childhelp, 2018). Caregiver signs of neglect include indifference towards the child; depression, apathy, drug or alcohol abuse, or other mental health challenges; denying having problems with the child or blaming the child for their problems; viewing the child negatively; and/or relying on the child for their own care and well-being (Childhelp, 2018). Prevalence and Outcomes According to Childhelp (2018), more than 3.6 million referrals involving more than 6.6 million children are made to child protective agencies each year, and in 2014, state agencies identified an estimated 1,580 children who died as a result of abuse and neglect. On average, this indicates that between four and five children die each day due to maltreatment, but this statistic is likely higher than this due to the underreported nature of these crimes. Of the child maltreatment fatalities that are reported, 80% of them involve at least one parent as the perpetrator (Childhelp, 2018). Research suggests that individuals who experience adverse childhood experiences, including child abuse, are at a greater risk for a variety of negative outcomes, including depression and anxiety, hallucinations, substance use, risky sexual behavior, impaired memory, obesity, sleep disturbances, somatic complains, and comorbid psychological disorders (Anda et al., 2005). Additionally, children who experience abuse and neglect are approximately nine times more likely to become involved in criminal activity and are at an increased risk for a variety of health issues, including decreased life expectancy, Ischemic heart disease (IHD), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and liver disease (Childhelp, 2018). Experiences of current or past child abuse are especially prevalent within the mental health care system. According to a study by Silverman, Reinherz, and Giaconia (1996), 80% of 21-year-olds who reported childhood abuse met the criteria for at least one psychological disorder . Additionally, Swan (1998) found that as many as two-thirds of those in treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children. Researchers hypothesize that this association between childhood trauma and abuse and negative health outcomes may be explained in part by the neurobiological changes that occur as a result of these adverse experiences (Anda et al., 2005). According to Anda et al. (2005), traumatic events experienced in childhood alter both the structure and functioning of various regions of the brain, including the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This indicates that child abuse is a major risk factor for psychological challenges and that most, if not all, practitioners will likely encounter clients with experiences of current or past abuse, regardless of their population of interest. History of Child Protection Prior to 1874, parents were generally considered to have ownership and absolute authority over their children. As a result of this attitude, children were often abused, neglected, and even sold into slavery without intervention by the state (Lawrence Robinson Kurpius, 2000). Child protection first gained legal traction in 1874, when a court ruled that Mary Ellen Wilson, age 9, was afforded protection from abuse under laws related to animal cruelty. Following this ruling, the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC) was founded and become the first organization dedicated exclusively to child protection. Subsequently, in 1875, legislation was passed requiring police officers and courts to aid in the prevention of cruelty to children. By 1922, more than 300 non-governmental child protective entities, such as the NYSPCC, existed across the United States. However, over the next four decades this responsibility shifted to the state, and by 1967 nearly all states had laws making the government responsible for child protection. As of 1963, four states had enacted mandated reporting laws related to child abuse, and by 1968, all states had laws mandating that health care professionals report physical abuse and neglect of children. It was not until 1976 that all states also required professionals to report sexual abuse. Since the enactment of these child welfare laws, the responsibility of the state to protect children has been legally challenged. In the case of DeShaney v. Winnebago County Department of Social Service, a four-year-old boy was severely beaten after being returned to his fathers custody by Child Protective Services (CPS). The court ruled that CPS had no legal obligation to protect the boy, thereby allowing the state to abdicate its responsibility to protect minors from parental abuse (Myers, 2008). As the responsibility of child protection shifted from non-governmental agencies to the state, the federal government passed several acts related to child welfare. In 1974, Congress passed the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which designated federal funds to improve the state response to child abuse, especially in the domains of investigation and reporting. Congress then passed the Indian Child Welfare ACT (ICWA) in 1978, mandating that child abuse cases regarding children permanently residing on a reservation be decided by the tribal court. It also mandated that tribes be notified of child abuse cases regarding children not living on the reservation and afforded tribes the right to intervene in these cases. The goal of this legislation was to reduce the disproportionately high number of Native American children being removed from their homes, often without sufficient cause.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Regional Trade Arrangements Of Africa And Their Motives Essay

2. Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa and Their Motives Regionalism has become one of the buzz words in international trade diplomacy nowadays. There is almost no country in the world which does not have membership in one or two regional economic integrations, and the coverage and scope of these arrangements have grown more than ever before. Different authors have used different approaches to define the concept of regional integration. Therefore, it is important to discuss the definitions of economic integration according to the most prominent authors in the field of regional integration before taking on the theoretical and empirical literatures of the concept. One of the widely accepted definitions of economic integration is that of Balassa (1961), which is defined as â€Å"the abolition of discrimination within an area†. Another very important definition of economic integration relevant to developing countries is that of Kahnert, P. Richards, Stoutjesdijk, and Thomopoulos (1969). According to these authors, economic integration is â€Å"the process of progressive removal of trade discriminations which occur at national borders†. Furthermore, Machlup (1977) defines economic integration as a process of merging separate economies into a larger economic region with the objective of realizing the efficient utilization of all potential opportunities of the division of labor. From the above definitions, it can be inferred that all the definitions spin around one central point; andShow MoreRelatedThe Direction Of Bilateral Trade Flows Across Countries Or Regional Economic Blocs Essay2172 Words   |  9 Pages4.2. Conclusion This study has indicated that there are some differences as to what determines the direction of bilateral trade flows across countries or regional economic blocs. The motives behind the formation of such arrangements disparate from region to region hence, there are differing arguments that explain the rationale for their set up. 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Mahmut Arslan PREPARED BY: FEYZA KAYA 20312196 ZÃÅ"LFÃÅ"YE YILDIZ 20212354 CONTENTS [pic] i CONTENTS ii FDI MOTIVES 3 FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: 3 Types of FDI 4 Advantages of FDI 4 Motivations for FDI 6 Market-Expansion: Investments versus Trade 6 Resource-Acquisition Investment 8 Diversification-Oriented Investments 9 Political Motives 9 SOME EXAMPLES FOR FDI MOTIVES 9 Case: Bridgestone Tire CompanyRead MoreIndividual Case Analysis And Presentation Essay9535 Words   |  39 Pagesannual reports, financial reports, documents and data from public domain, databases, aggregated data, statistics and reports from Central Bank of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics, National investment promotion commission, UNCTAD, World bank, Africa Development Bank. The interview was conducted with individual in strategic positions within the case companies. The fieldwork and data collection took place between December 2014 and April 2016 in London (UK), Abuja, Lagos, and Owerri Nigeria. A

Sample Reproduction Methods For Non-Target Screening

Non-target screening aims to obtain an overview of the sample constituents and identifies all the eligible peaks in the sample. The soil samples contaminated by electroplating wastewater usually contain a large amount of organic pollutants with high matrix interferences (Zhao 2013). In order to choose an effective sample extraction method, three commonly used extraction methods including accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), Soxhlet extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) (Wang 2007, Rodriguez-Solana 2015, and Jurado-Sanchez 2013) have been compared based on the previous reports. Among these methods, ASE provides the best extraction efficiency for extracting most semi-volatile organic compounds in soil samples with short†¦show more content†¦Stock solutions were prepared in isooctane, and then diluted into seven concentration levels, from 1 to 500  µg/L. The stock solution was kept at -18  °C until use. The internal standard solution with a concentration of 100 ÃŽ ¼g/L was diluted from an Internal Standard Mix purchased from AccuStandard (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) and used to determine the concentration of target compounds by calculating the response factor, noting that the selected internal standards were stable and similar to the analytes and would not interfere with the sample components. The surrogate standard solution was prepared at 10 mg/L for nitrobenzene-d5 and p-terphenyl-d14 for performing the quality control function, since its recovery rate was used to evaluate the efficiency of the analytical method. The organic solvents, of analytical grade, were purchased from JK scientific LTD (Beijing, China). Sample information and Sample Preparation In this study, three soil samples were chosen for the analysis and explanation of the whole workflow. Two soil samples were collected from a leaching basin (Boxing, Shandong Province, China), surrounded by two small electroplating factories and polluted by electroplating wastewater. Sample #1 and Sample #2 were taken from the top layer soil (0–20 cm) and middle layer soil (20–50 cm) of the leaching basin bottom using a soilShow MoreRelatedNon Clinical Studies : The Discovery Of A New Drug Without Involving Human Subjects1798 Words   |  8 PagesNon clinical Studies for Biologic The discovery of a new drug without involving human subjects is called as non clinical studies. 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Energy of a Tossed Ball free essay sample

The purpose for the students of the Energy of a Tossed Ball Lab involved learning how to measure the change in kinetic and potential energies as a ball moves in free fall. Since there is no frictional forces working on the ball the total energy will remain constant and the students will see how the total energy of the ball changes during free fall. HYPOTHESIS: 1. The ball has potential energy while momentarily at rest at the top of the path. 2. The ball contains kinetic energy while in motion near the bottom of its path. The ball gains potential energy as it moves upward, because of its position, until the ball reaches its max point where potential energy is the most. The ball loses potential energy on its way down. 6. 7. The kinetic graph was correct as my hypothesis. My potential graph did not start in the same position as my data graph. We will write a custom essay sample on Energy of a Tossed Ball or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 9. The total energy is constant for most of the time until the ball is released and caught up and down in free fall, because extra force of the person actions changes the energy. The energy should remain constant because the kinetic and potential ratio energy cancel each other out because the Law Conservation of Energy. Extensions: 1. The total energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy would be less if a person used a very light ball, because energy is dependent of mass. More percent energy loss would be lost because the energy applied at the release would be less than the pull of energy of gravity. 2. If different mass was entered in the data the total energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy would be different because the energy is dependent of the mass. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: 1. I learned how the total energy will remain constant if no frictional forces are acted on a tossed ball. Using the velocity vs. time graph I learned that the ball had zero velocity at the top of its motion upward. I noticed the conservation of energy is correct because only 19. 87% of energy was lost. The energy lost was slim. Also the graphs of potential and kinetic energy are the opposite in which as time increase the potential energy increase as the kinetic energy decreases. When the ball is at the top of its motion the potential energy is at its highest and the kinetic energy is low. I learned that the total energy remains constant because the potential and kinetic energy ratios cancel each other out while the ball is in motion. 2. The errors in this lab would be when the person tossed the ball into the air their hand may have affected the data collection when the person caught the ball. 3. I would how to change how to collect data of the ball being tossed in the air without anything interfering.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Verbatim Family and Time free essay sample

Care of the Dying and Bereaved Verbatim Report of a Pastoral Visit Chaplain Your Initials: GAR Location of Visit: At Its home Time of Visit: 1430 Date of Visit: May 29, 2013 Date written: June 8, 2013 Preliminary Data Age: 88 Gender: Female Religious Preference: Seventh-day Adventist Referral: Y/N? N Initial Observations/Facts # of Prior Visits: 3 My initial visit with UT was a couple of months ago when my husband and I were approached to help with the relocation of a bed to make room for a hospice bed. During the first visit as we were introduced to the couple, I became aware that the tenant sent home to die with hospice is a retired pastor with the Seventh-day Adventist church. He spent all his life as a missionary and pioneer for our church. Within a week he died and I bumped into the wife (UT) outside of church a few weeks after his death and she asked if I could come by to visit with her. This is my third visit with her. As I enter Its home I notice the blinds down and curtains drawn. There is a lamp turned on dimly and in the recliner sits UT. Next to the recliner is a table with her cup of tea, her bible and a Journal. The walls are covered with pictures of the couple ND their children from all over the world where they ministered. I can see the kitchen from where I stand and there are boxes stacked up on the counter and stove which lets me know that she is not cooking for herself. She invites me to sit down. Goals I chose this visit to do a write up as a verbatim because this is my third time with Mrs. UT. My visits with her are grief related as she is mourning the loss of her husband. They had been married for seventy years. I would like to focus on how I helped her begin the grieving process. Pastoral Visit P = Patient H ”Husband D ”Daughter CLC: Hello, UT, Its Gilda Rowdy; I thought Id stop by to see how you are doing since our last visit? (The phone rang and when UT answered it she spoke in a low voice. I was aware I felt anxious and wondered if I should excuse myself. ) Pl: The pastor is here D and I have been waiting for her visit, can I call you later? Bye darling. (She hung up the phone). Its my daughter; Ill call her later. CO: The last time I was here we talked about your support system. How is that going? PA: As you know, I had a lot of family and friends visit after H died, now I am definitely feeling the emptiness and loneliness. I sometimes hear H calling my name like he used to and I respond like I used to and then realize that he is dead and it is lust wishful thinking. (She pauses) CO: (After some silence), it is quite normal that you would hear your husband after all the two of you have been together for over seventy years. Tell me, how are you coping? PA: Gilda, Its hard. I cant remember life without him (she starts sobbing). We got married on my eighteenth birthday. I was young but back then, its what you did. I was the oldest of thirteen kids. When I met H he promised me the world and I remember laughing at him. He kept his promise. I have visited and lived in some of the most untouched parts of the world. CO: How was it for you to leave your family? (l was aware of my own pain of leaving my family, as I left home at eighteen leaving the southern hemisphere heading to the northern hemisphere to study) PA: To tell you the truth, I missed my family a lot, but there was something about marrying a pastor and traveling the world. I was excited and looked forward to an adventure, something I had never experienced before. There were times when life was no so easy but for the most part H and I lived a life of adventure. CO: Tell me a little about when life was not easy? AS: One of trying times was when we spent seven months in the Solomon Island. (She pointed too picture of her and her husband with a local tribe). We were told by the General Conference to be extra careful and not to go out at night. Most of them were cannibals you see. I was terrified, but H said we should trust in God, so we went safety during our time there. When we found out I was 4 months pregnant H said it was time for us to go home. I was relieved. CO: I can only imagine what that must have been like for you? It sounds though that you lived a very exciting life, the life your husband promised. PA: Exactly, it was so exciting . God truly blessed us. He blessed us with safety and health most importantly. When it was time for us to retire, we both knew we had accomplished all we set out to do. God would be pleased I thought. We decided to retire in Loam Linda since we had two children here and our grand children. CO: Tell me about your relationship with your children and grand children? PA: We were quite blessed even up to the time when H was dying the kids would come by every Friday night to start the Sabbath with us, the grand kids would sing to him and bring their instruments and play for him. You should have seen the last time we worshiped together. I know Jesus and His angels were watching down on us. CO: How has it been since Hes death? PA: Oh, the kids and grand kids still come by and we still have worship, its Just that. (Then she paused) CGI: What it, UT? PA: Well after the kids and grand used to leave we would always talk about each one and reminisce on stories and then pray for each one of them. Now that H is gone I feel angry that he is not here for me to do that. CIO: I can see how that would make you feel angry. Is there a way that you can still reminisce and pray for your family? POI: It Just hurts so much, and once everyone leaves its Just me and all these memories. Its silly; I have been blessed with so many wonderful years with H, but feel robbed of my time with him. Call: I dont think it silly at all. I think its beautiful that you would want to spend more time with your husband. I see you as a role model for all couples, especially ones married to pastors. I know that it can be tough at times but the two of you by Gods grace made it through. Pl 1: Enjoy your husband and dont take time for granted. Loneliness is very dark. CO: Tell me about your loneliness? What does it look like for you? Alone. After you have spent every waking moment with your soul mate living without IM is dark. CO: I am so sorry. What do you think you can do to move out of this darkness? PAP: I live in this wonderful community where there are always activities going on. I guess I could be sociable and Join some fun activities. They have invited me; I Just havent had the courage to go alone. CO: Thats understandable, from what you are telling me you are showing appropriate emotions for one whos loved one has died. PAP: It really helps talking about this with you. I appreciate you stopping by. CO: I am happy to check in with you every couple of weeks if you like. PAP: I would like that very much, feel free to bring you kids too they are so sweet and polite, you hardly see that nowadays. The first time we met the couple to help them relocate the bed the kids came along and while Jordan and I took the bed apart the kids sang for the couple). CO: I noticed the boxes in the kitchen, how are you managing for food. PAP: You are very observant. I asked my grand kids to box up Hes books and someone from relive will be picking it up. We always wanted to make sure someone would get good use out of them, although these days with the internet. But to answer your question, my children are bringing my meals every day. I am blessed I tell you. CO: I am glad to hear that. Well it was nice visiting with you. May I pray for you before I leave? PAP: You wouldnt be a pastor is you didnt (she chuckled). CO: I took her hand and prayed. Dear Heavenly father, I thank you for UT. It is evident after our time together that she has a strong faith and relationship with you. You alone know her pain as she grieves the death of H. You alone can feel her loneliness in this house. I pray for your comfort and care as she mourns the loss of H. Please help her with her loneliness, UT most important of all help her with the relationship she will make within this community. Bless her children and grand children as UT finds a way to continue praying for them. Thank you Father for coordinating our paths. In Jesus name we pray amen. CO: Ill check back with you in a couple of weeks. See you later. Evaluation I have grown to really appreciate UT, I am aware of my own sense of loss as my grandmother passed away some years ago and I watched my grandfather grapple with learning how to live without his soul mate. I feel I listened to Its concern regarding her loneliness as I guided her in finding ways to be around people. I did not want to become a crutch for her or providing her with solutions therefore being an enabler. I realize her pain of losing her loved one after seventy years of marriage. She expressed a healthy way of grieving, and I am happy to Journey that with her as I encourage her to lean on children and grandkids who are clearly attached to their mother. Theological/Spiritual Reflection As I reflect on my visit with UT, I see it as a theologically sound visit due to our same faith background. In our previous visit she mentioned that she would no doubt be reunited with H again at Jesus second coming. We rejoiced in the fact that we have such hope and at the same time were very aware of this world marred with sin. Mourning is a healthy way to deal with the loss of a loved one as Jesus himself wept for His friend Lazarus. I was encouraged to see a couple sustain the trials of life and remain together for so many years. As a minister I know the struggles that accompanies a couple who choose to follow Gods calling. It is not always the easiest road to Journey on. Couples who sustain the test of time through prayer and perseverance are few and far between. This is not the norm in our society.