Friday, July 3, 2020

Which College Literature Classes Should I Take

One way to get your freshman 15! Congratulations! You’ve gotten to college, and now you never have to read another book in your life! But that’s exactly the opposite of what books can do for you in college. Instead of a book being something you have to read, think about college literature classes as your opportunity to get to read. Whether or not you’re a humanities major, odds are pretty good that you’ll be required to take an English course or some sort of literature course at some point in your four years of college. The list of literature courses can seem overwhelming. And they can lurk across lots of departments: the best course on Russian novels might be in the Slavic Languages and Literature Department, but it might also be in Comparative Literature, English, Art History, Classics, Politics, Folklore and Mythology, or History and Literature, to name just a few. Here are some ways to get the most out of that potentiallyscary literature class: 1) Take a lecture course—but don’t be afraid to take a specialized lecture. Even if you haven’t taken other literature courses, specialized lectures--The American Novel from 1860 to the Present, Twentieth-Century Irish Poetry, The Canterbury Tales-- can be a great place to start. Big sweeping introductory classes are often terrific, but they don’t have to be your first literature course. If you’re considering a literature lecture, consider one on a single author, or a single genre, or a single time period. Even if you don’t come in with a lot of background knowledge, that’s okay, because the topic is narrow enough so that you can launch right into the material without mastering everything under the sun first. 2) Take a small seminar, even if you’ve never taken a college literature course before. Don’t be intimidated by the fact that you have nowhere to hide – embrace it! Seminars aren’t just for experts – they give you a chance to ask lots of questions and puzzle your way through totally new ways of thinking with individualized help. 3) Ask people who are majors in humanities departments to recommend professors to you. Don’t just rely on your friends for this; instead, you should turn to people who are juniors and seniors in departments with a lot of literature courses and ask them which professors they’ve had very positive experiences with. Ask them why the professor is so good: is the professor a brilliant discussion leader? An astounding lecturer? A generous but firm editor? Then, look at the course offerings from that professor. 4) Take a literature class with a book on the syllabus that you’ve read before but hated. You know you should like The Sound and the Fury, which you read in junior year of high school, but somehow, you just couldn’t get into it then. Or you knew that Walt Whitman is supposed to be great, but you’ve never clicked with â€Å"I Hear America Singing.† This is your opportunity to re-discover the books and authors that you’ve completely written off. You might find something in them that you love after all. In short: don’t be afraid to take a college literature class. All the excuses--â€Å"I hated AP English,† or â€Å"I can’t write,† or â€Å"I don’t know how to think about books,† or â€Å"I don’t know where to start† or â€Å"Why would I bother to take a literature class when I should be taking something more practical?†--are just getting in the way: instead, give yourself a chance to explore! For more relevant reading, check out these other blog posts, written by our English tutors: X, Y, Z. Looking to work with Adrienne Raphel? Feel free to get in touch! Cambridge Coaching offers private in-person tutoring in New York City and Boston, and online tutoring around the world. ;

Monday, May 25, 2020

Biography of Christina, Unconventional Queen of Sweden

Queen Christina of Sweden (December 18, 1626–April 19, 1689) reigned for nearly 22 years, from Nov. 6, 1632, to June 5, 1654. Shes remembered for her abdication and her conversion from Lutheranism to Roman Catholicism. She also was known for being an unusually well-educated woman for her time, a patron of the arts, and, according to rumors, a lesbian and an intersexual.  She was formally crowned in 1650. Fast Facts: Queen Christina of Sweden Known For: Independent-minded queen of SwedenAlso Known As:  Christina Vasa, Kristina Wasa, Maria Christina Alexandra, Count Dohna,  Minerva  of the North, Protectress of the Jews at RomeBorn: December 18, 1626 in Stockholm, SwedenParents: King Gustavus Adolphus Vasa, Maria EleonoraDied: April 19, 1689 in Rome, Italy Early Life Christina was born Dec. 18, 1626, to King Gustavus Adolphus Vasa of Sweden and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, now a state in Germany. She was her fathers only surviving legitimate child, and thus his only heir.  Her mother was a German princess, daughter of John Sigismund, elector of Brandenburg, and granddaughter of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia.  She married Gustavus Adolphus against the will of her brother George William, who had by that time succeeded to the office of elector of Brandenberg. Her childhood came during a long European cold spell called the Little Ice Age  and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648),  when Sweden sided with other Protestant nations against the Habsburg Empire, a Catholic power centered in Austria. Her fathers role in the Thirty Years War may have turned the tide from the Catholics to the Protestants. He was considered a master of military tactics and instituted political reforms, including expanding education and the rights of the peasantry. After his death in 1632, he was designated the Great (Magnus) by the Swedish Estates of the Realm. Her mother, disappointed to have had a girl, showed little affection for her. Her father was frequently away at war, and Maria Eleonoras mental state was made worse by those absences.  As a baby, Christina was subjected to several suspicious accidents. Christinas father ordered that she be educated as a boy. She became known for her education and for her patronage of learning and the arts. She was referred to as the Minerva of the North, referring to the Roman goddess of the arts, and the Swedish capital Stockholm became known as Athens of the North.   Queen When her father was killed in battle in 1632, the 6-year-old girl became Queen Christina. Her mother, who was described as being hysterical in her grief, was excluded from being part of the regency. Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna ruled Sweden as regent until Queen Christina was of age. Oxenstierna had been an adviser to Christinas father and continued in that role after Christina was crowned. Christinas mothers parental rights were terminated in 1636, though Maria Eleonora continued to attempt to visit Christina. The government tried to settle Maria Eleonora first in Denmark and then back in her home in Germany, but her homeland would not accept her until Christina secured an allowance for her support. Reigning Even during the regency, Christina followed her own mind. Against Oxenstiernas advice, she initiated the end of the Thirty Years War, culminating with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. She launched a Court of Learning by virtue of her patronage of art, theater, and music. Her efforts attracted French philosopher Rene Descartes, who came to Stockholm and stayed for two years. His plans to establish an academy in Stockholm collapsed when he suddenly became ill with pneumonia and died in 1650. Her coronation finally came in 1650 in a ceremony attended by her mother. Relationships Queen Christina appointed her cousin Carl Gustav (Karl Charles Gustavus) as her successor. Some historians believe that she was romantically linked to him earlier, but they never married. Instead, her relationship with lady-in-waiting Countess Ebbe Belle Sparre launched rumors of lesbianism. Surviving letters from Christina to the countess are easily described as love letters, though it is difficult to apply modern classifications such as lesbian to people in a time when such categorizations were not known. They shared a bed at times, but this practice did not necessarily imply a sexual relationship. The countess married and left the court before Christinas abdication, but they continued to exchange passionate letters. Abdication Difficulties with issues of taxation and governance and problematic relations with Poland plagued Christinas last years as queen, and in 1651 she first proposed that she abdicate. Her council convinced her to stay, but she had some sort of breakdown and spent much time confined to her rooms. She finally abdicated officially in 1654. Supposed reasons were that she didnt want to marry or that  she wanted to convert the state religion from Lutheranism to Roman Catholicism, but the real motive is still argued by historians. Her mother opposed her abdication, but Christina provided that her mothers allowance would be secure even without her daughter ruling Sweden. Rome Christina, now calling herself Maria Christina Alexandra, left Sweden a few days after her official abdication, traveling disguised as a man. When her mother died in 1655, Christina was living in Brussels. She made her way to Rome, where she lived in a palazzo filled with art and books that became a lively center of culture as a salon. She had converted to Roman Catholicism by the time she arrived in Rome. The former queen became a favorite of the Vatican in the religious battle for the hearts and minds of 17th century Europe. She was aligned with a free-thinking branch of Roman Catholicism. Christina also embroiled herself in political and religious intrigue, first between the French and Spanish factions in Rome. Failed Schemes In 1656, Christina launched an attempt to become queen of Naples. A member of Christinas household, the marquis of Monaldesco, betrayed plans of Christina and the French to the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Christina retaliated by having Monaldesco executed in her presence. For this act, she was for some time marginalized in Roman society, though she eventually became involved again in church politics. In another failed scheme, Christina attempted to have herself made queen of Poland. Her confidant and adviser, Cardinal Decio Azzolino, was rumored to be her lover, and in one scheme Christina attempted to win the papacy for Azzolino. Christina died on April 19, 1689, at age 62, having named Cardinal Azzolino as her sole heir. She was buried in St. Peters Basilica, an unusual honor for a woman. Legacy Queen Christinas abnormal interest (for her era) in pursuits normally reserved for males, occasional dressing in male attire, and persistent stories about her relationships have led to disagreements among historians as to the nature of her sexuality. In 1965, her body was exhumed for testing to see if she had signs of hermaphroditism or intersexuality. The results were inconclusive, though they indicated that her skeleton was typically female in structure. Her life spanned Renaissance Sweden to Baroque Rome and left a record of a woman who, through privilege and strength of character, challenged what it meant to be a woman in her era. She also left behind her thoughts in letters, maxims, an unfinished autobiography, and notes in the margins of her books. Sources Buckley, Veronica.  Christina, Queen of Sweden: The Restless Life of a European Eccentric. Harper Perennial, 2005.Mattern, Joanne.  Queen Christina of Sweden.  Capstone Press, 2009.Landy, Marcia and Villarejo, Amy.  Queen Christina.   British Film Institute,1995.Christina of Sweden.5 Facts About Queen Christina of Sweden.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Story Of A Life - 1361 Words

In 1983 Aharon Appelfeld published a work of fiction titled Tzili that closely resembled his own personal Holocaust experiences. This work of fiction revolves around a maturing teen who is alone and on the run during the Holocaust. In Tzili, Appelfeld brings to life his characters, which include Tzili, Katrina, Mark, and Linda. Throughout this literary analysis Appelfelds’ memoir Story of a Life will be used to access the parallels that exist between Appelfeld’s own personal experience and his fictional work Tzili. As a Jewish child Aharon Appelfeld spent years on the run, always in hiding from those who would turn him over to the Nazis. Throughout his journey Appelfeld encounters many obstacles that shape who he becomes as a person. In†¦show more content†¦One of the first characters Tzili encounters in the novel is an old prostitute named Katrina. Katrina takes Tzili in due to the fact that Tzili informs her that she is Maria’s daughter. In the beginni ng Katrina is caring and protective of Tzili. Even though Katrina may have had a suspicion that Tzili is Jewish, she still provides her with food and shelter. Overtime Katrina becomes verbally and physically abusive towards Tzili, throwing things at Tzili when Tzili does not immediately get her what she wants. When Katrina demands Tzili to entertain one of her customers, Tzili realizes that it is time for her to leave and find a new place to stay. Later on in the story, Tzili encounters a Jewish refugee named Mark. Mark is a Jewish man who escaped a concentration camp but was unable to bring his wife and children with him. This leaves Mark with the feelings of intense gilt, and in order to escape this guilt, Mark turns to addictive behaviors such as drinking and smoking. As the relationship grows between Mark and Tzili, a sense of co-dependence forms leading to the emergence of a romantic relationship. Even though this relationship is loving in nature, Mark develops the sense that h e is becoming to dependent on Tzili. This leads to Mark deciding to venture into the village to retrieve supplies where in the end, the readers infer Mark was captured. Lastly, Tzili meets a refugee named Linda, who isShow MoreRelatedThe Story Of Life1464 Words   |  6 Pagespraying instead of fighting. Harold nervously said, â€Å" The chief told us we were too young to fight so we are praying that the fight stops.† â€Å"Ok, you can go.† said the guard Jeffrey was in awe as he saw what was on the inside of the church. There were stories about the tribe written in cursive with ink and huge tile paintings everywhere, but the one thing that caught his eye was the gun. Jeffrey walked over and found some writing on the gun. It read J.H.T.G. It kept repeating in his head. J.H.T.G. JRead MoreMy Story : The Story Of My Life770 Words   |  4 PagesMy story starts off like any other story. You have the typical family having their firstborn. It was all normal for the most part I lived in Miami when I was born and then I moved to New Jersey when I was six months old and I lived there for about two or three years and I don’t remember much but I remember we lived in a little apartment complex in west New Jersey. After that we moved back down to Miami in 2005 and then my sister was born in January of 2006 in Miami. We lived in Miami for about oneRead MoreA Short Story : A Story Of My Life1318 Words   |  6 Pagesfather or his family was on this eventful day. My mother was born out of wedlock as well, my grandma and grandfather weren’t together, and my mother was the second of six girls on my grandma’s side and maybe the third on my grandfather’s side. Long story short my grandmother, had six daughters with three different men and she married the father of her last two children, that’s the man who I grew up with as grandpa. My mom’s father has a lot of children and I may know half of them, he married the motherRead MoreThe Story of My Life1693 Words   |  7 PagesForm and Content The Story of My Life is an account of the early years of a woman who overcame incredible problems to become an accomplished, literate adult. The book does not give a complete account of the author’s life, as it was written when she was still a college student. It is, however, a unique account of one young woman’s passage from almost total despair to success in a world mostly populated by hearing and seeing people. This book is relatively short, but the modern editions also includeRead MoreShort Story : A Story On Its Life1151 Words   |  5 Pagesway to detox all of the stupidity she endured in her daily life. Today, she decided to up her game and max out at 60 minutes. Already 50 minutes into it, she had to mentally push past the discomfort. Distracting herself, she pictured her last kill. Michael on the slab. The box cutters tearing into his skin. His muffled cries of pain. The final cut. The rush of blood draining from his throat. Watching the light in his eyes fade out as his life floated away. Erin relished in the memories. What excitedRead MoreThe Story Of My Life1331 Words   |  6 Pageshave to say is ‘howzit?’ You are a wonder, my dear. What even happened out there? No one told me,† I badger. â€Å"Well†¦ I was driving home from the horrid interview, another story for another day, and some dude loses control of the wheel, hits the back side of my car and I sort of hit a palm tree,† she slowly explains. â€Å"Long story short, your car is totaled and I’m sorry.† â€Å"If I could, I would slap you across the head. I don’t care about the dumb car, idiot. All that matters is that you’re okayRead MoreThe Story Of My Life Essay1725 Words   |  7 Pageslead a fragmented life in a fragmented Island as she is already a disillusioned being with no sense of understanding or a healthy bondage between herself and her family members. The sinister charm of the Island calls her to more meaningful and satisfying existence as a gift witnessed very many magic activities of her father. She craves for such a bewitching life that is possible only in Island along with her unborn child. As a woman harboring romantic thoughts about the witching life of magic and wonderRead MoreShort Story : The Story Of Its Life946 Words   |  4 PagesIm fine. Been through much worse than that, trust me. You need another drink? We both looked at his glass, which was still half full. Uh, no, I think Ill be okay for awhile. Who was that anyway? I shrugged. Never seen any of them before in my life. His eyebrows rose in surprise. Oh. Nevermind then. I shook off the thought that he had something else to say before returning to work. It was close to two in the morning by the time the last inebriated customer other than Dean paid his billRead MoreA Short Story : The Story Of My Life774 Words   |  4 Pagesfloor from what the doctors diagnosed her with â€Å"unclassified cardiomyopathy†. Not only did death caused me to worry for my family, but it also even made me worry for my future. With almost losing a special person, I realized that life can suddenly be taken from you. Life is valuable and should not be taken for granted and to savor everything. Whether we like it or not, most individuals, at some point, deal with a hospital. As a child, I have always been infatuated with how a hospital works. You neverRead MoreThe Story of My Life2883 Words   |  12 PagesThe Story of My Life by: Helen Keller I. INTRODUCTION Helen Keller overcame different difficult obstacles of deafness and blindness to become an influential lecturer and social activist. She has become, in American culture, an icon of perseverance, respected and honored by readers, historians, and activists. Helen began working on The Story of My Life while she was a student at Radcliffe College, and it was first published in installments in Ladies’ Home Journal. Helping her was an editor

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Ethical Considerations in Identifying and Reporting Child Abuse - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2162 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/04/08 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Child Abuse Essay Did you like this example? Child abuse is a crucial ethical issue for mental health practitioners to understand and be competent in addressing. According to Childhelp (2018), a nonprofit organization dedicated to the prevention and treatment of child abuse, child abuse occurs when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to act, causes injury, death, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to a child (para. 1). In certain instances, child abuse can also be committed by peers or siblings. There are four distinct forms of child abuse, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Physical abuse is the most common form of child abuse, with approximately 28.3% of adults reporting experiences of physical abuse in childhood (Childhelp, 2018). Physical abuse involves physical injury to a child, such as bruises, blisters, burns, cuts, scratches, broken bones, sprains, dislocation of joints, internal injuries, brain damage, or death, resulting from striking, kicking, burning, biting, hair pulling, choking, throwing, shoving, whipping or any other action that injures a child (Childhelp, 2018, para. 2). Physical abuse does not include acts of physical discipline, given that the action does not injure or impair the child. Signs of physical abuse to a child can be both physical and behavioral. Physical signs may include visible or severe injuries, any injury to a child who is not yet crawling, injuries at different stages of healing, unexplained injuries, injuries explained in a way that do not make sense, injuries with distinctives shapes, and/or patterns in frequency, timing, or history of injuries, such as after weekends, vacations, or school absences (Childhelp, 2018). Behavioral signs of physical abuse include aggression towards peers, pets, or other animals; being fearful of parents or other adults; withdrawal, depression, or anxiety; wearing long sleeves out of season; violent themes in art or fantasy; sleep disruptions such as insomnia or nightmares; reports of injury or severe discipline; immaturity, acting out, or other behavioral extremes; and/or self-destructive behavior or attitudes (Childhelp, 2018). Parents and caregivers may also show signs of committing physical abuse, including refusal or inability to explain the childs injury, explaining the injury in a way that does not make sense, aggression towards the child, appearing overly anxious about the childs behavior, delaying or preventing medical care for the child, taking the child to different doctors or hospitals, isolating the child from social activities, and/or having a hist ory of violence or abuse (Childhelp, 2018). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ethical Considerations in Identifying and Reporting Child Abuse" essay for you Create order The second most prevalent form of child abuse is sexual abuse. Sexual abuse involves using a child in sex acts or for sexual gratification (Childhelp, 2018). This may take place in the form of non-contact or contact abuse. Non-contact abuse involves making a child view a sex act, making a child view or show sex organs, or talking to a child inappropriately about sex. Contact abuse includes fondling, oral sex, penetration, forcing the child to perform a sex act, or involving the child in prostitution or pornography. According to Childhelp (2018), one in every five adults reports being sexually abused as a child. Physical signs of sexual abuse in children may be more apparent to medical practitioners but may also be observed by mental health practitioners working in an integrative care setting. These signs include difficulty sitting or walking; bowel problems; torn, stained, or bloody undergarments; bleeding, bruising, pain, swelling, or itching of the genital area; frequent urinary tr act or yeast infections; and/or any sexually transmitted disease or related symptoms (Childhelp, 2018). Behavioral signs of sexual abuse may include not wanting to change clothes (i.e.: for P.E.); withdrawn, depressed, or anxious affect; eating disorders or preoccupation with ones body; aggression, delinquency, or poor peer relationships; poor self-image; poor self-care; lack of confidence; sudden absenteeism or decline in school performance; substance use, running away, reckless behavior, or suicide attempts; sleep disturbances, such as fear of bedtime, nightmares, or bedwetting at an advanced age; acting out sexually or excessive masturbation; unusual or repetitive self-soothing behaviors; advanced or unusual sexual behavior or knowledge; and/or reports of sexual abuse (Childhelp, 2018). Caregivers may also exhibit signs of being sexually abusive towards a child, including failing to supervise the child, acting as an unstable adult presence in the childs life, appearing jealous or possessive, having troubled or dysfunctional sexual relationships, and/or relying on the child for emotional support (Childhelp, 2018). Child maltreatment can also take place in the form of emotional abuse, which occurs when a parents or caregivers actions [harm] a childs mental and social development, or [cause] severe emotional harm (Childhelp, 2018, para. 4). This may occur as a single incident, but generally involves a pattern of behavior that causes damage over time. Emotional abuse includes rejecting or ignoring a child by telling them that they are unwanted/unloved, invalidating the childs feelings, breaking promises, interrupting the child in conversation, or not providing affection; shaming or humiliating a child by calling them names, criticizing, berating, or mocking the child, or attacking the childs sense of self-worth; terrorizing a child by accusing, threatening, manipulating, or yelling at the child, or setting the child up for failure; isolating a child by depriving them of social contact, confining them to small spaces, or depriving them of play or stimulation; and/or corrupting a child by involving them in criminal activity or encouraging misbehavior (Childhelp, 2018, para. 4). According to Childhelp (2018), 10.6% of adults report being emotionally abused in childhood. Signs that a child may be experiencing emotional abuse include developmental delays; wetting their bed or pants; speech disorders; health problems like ulcers or skin disorders; obesity and weight fluctuation; habits like sucking, biting, or rocking; learning disabilities; being overly compliant or defensive, exhibiting extreme emotions, aggression, or withdrawal; anxiety or phobias; sleep disorders; destructive or anti-social behaviors, such as violence, cruelty, vandalism, stealing, cheating, or lying; exhibiting behavior that is inappropriate for their age; and/or suicidal thoughts or actions (Childhelp, 2018). Signs that a caregiver may be emotionally abusive include routinely ignoring, criticizing, yelling at, or blaming the child; playing favorites with one sibling over another; exhibiting poor anger mana gement or emotional regulation; having unstable relationships with other adults; disrespecting authority; having a history of violence or abuse; and/or having an untreated mental illness or addiction (Childhelp, 2018). The fourth type of child maltreatment, neglect, often requires a pattern of behavior over time and can occur in the form of physical, emotional, medical, and educational neglect. Physical neglect involves depriving a child of adequate supervision, clothing, food, and shelter. This may include leaving the child with an inadequate caregiver, leaving the child in another persons custody for an extended period of time, failing to provide a child with healthy food and drink, failing to ensure adequate personal hygiene, or exposing the child to unsafe or unsanitary environments or situations (Childhelp, 2018). Emotional neglect occurs when a parent or caregiver does not provide adequate affection and attention for a child to feel loved and supported (Childhelp, 2018). This may include isolating the child from friends and loved ones, exposing the child to severe or repeated violence (especially domestic violence), allowing a child to abuse substances or engage in criminal activity, or not s eeking treatment for a child showing signs of a psychological illness (Childhelp, 2018). Medical neglect occurs when a parent does not provide a child with appropriate treatment for injuries or illness or deprives a child of basic preventive medical or dental care (Childhelp, 2018). Lastly, educational neglect occurs when a parent limits a childs opportunities for academic success by allowing the child to miss too much school, not enrolling the child in school, or preventing the child from obtaining necessary special education services. Signs that a child may be experiencing neglect include wearing clothing that is the wrong size, tattered, dirty, or not appropriate for the weather; being hungry, stockpiling and seeking food, or showing signs of malnutrition (i.e.: distended abdomen, protruding bones); having a very low body weight and height for their age; often appearing tired or listless; displaying poor hygiene; talking about caring for younger siblings or not having a caregiver at home; having untreated medical or dental problems or incomplete immunizations; and/or truancy, frequently incomplete homework, or frequent school changes (Childhelp, 2018). Caregiver signs of neglect include indifference towards the child; depression, apathy, drug or alcohol abuse, or other mental health challenges; denying having problems with the child or blaming the child for their problems; viewing the child negatively; and/or relying on the child for their own care and well-being (Childhelp, 2018). Prevalence and Outcomes According to Childhelp (2018), more than 3.6 million referrals involving more than 6.6 million children are made to child protective agencies each year, and in 2014, state agencies identified an estimated 1,580 children who died as a result of abuse and neglect. On average, this indicates that between four and five children die each day due to maltreatment, but this statistic is likely higher than this due to the underreported nature of these crimes. Of the child maltreatment fatalities that are reported, 80% of them involve at least one parent as the perpetrator (Childhelp, 2018). Research suggests that individuals who experience adverse childhood experiences, including child abuse, are at a greater risk for a variety of negative outcomes, including depression and anxiety, hallucinations, substance use, risky sexual behavior, impaired memory, obesity, sleep disturbances, somatic complains, and comorbid psychological disorders (Anda et al., 2005). Additionally, children who experience abuse and neglect are approximately nine times more likely to become involved in criminal activity and are at an increased risk for a variety of health issues, including decreased life expectancy, Ischemic heart disease (IHD), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and liver disease (Childhelp, 2018). Experiences of current or past child abuse are especially prevalent within the mental health care system. According to a study by Silverman, Reinherz, and Giaconia (1996), 80% of 21-year-olds who reported childhood abuse met the criteria for at least one psychological disorder . Additionally, Swan (1998) found that as many as two-thirds of those in treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children. Researchers hypothesize that this association between childhood trauma and abuse and negative health outcomes may be explained in part by the neurobiological changes that occur as a result of these adverse experiences (Anda et al., 2005). According to Anda et al. (2005), traumatic events experienced in childhood alter both the structure and functioning of various regions of the brain, including the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This indicates that child abuse is a major risk factor for psychological challenges and that most, if not all, practitioners will likely encounter clients with experiences of current or past abuse, regardless of their population of interest. History of Child Protection Prior to 1874, parents were generally considered to have ownership and absolute authority over their children. As a result of this attitude, children were often abused, neglected, and even sold into slavery without intervention by the state (Lawrence Robinson Kurpius, 2000). Child protection first gained legal traction in 1874, when a court ruled that Mary Ellen Wilson, age 9, was afforded protection from abuse under laws related to animal cruelty. Following this ruling, the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC) was founded and become the first organization dedicated exclusively to child protection. Subsequently, in 1875, legislation was passed requiring police officers and courts to aid in the prevention of cruelty to children. By 1922, more than 300 non-governmental child protective entities, such as the NYSPCC, existed across the United States. However, over the next four decades this responsibility shifted to the state, and by 1967 nearly all states had laws making the government responsible for child protection. As of 1963, four states had enacted mandated reporting laws related to child abuse, and by 1968, all states had laws mandating that health care professionals report physical abuse and neglect of children. It was not until 1976 that all states also required professionals to report sexual abuse. Since the enactment of these child welfare laws, the responsibility of the state to protect children has been legally challenged. In the case of DeShaney v. Winnebago County Department of Social Service, a four-year-old boy was severely beaten after being returned to his fathers custody by Child Protective Services (CPS). The court ruled that CPS had no legal obligation to protect the boy, thereby allowing the state to abdicate its responsibility to protect minors from parental abuse (Myers, 2008). As the responsibility of child protection shifted from non-governmental agencies to the state, the federal government passed several acts related to child welfare. In 1974, Congress passed the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which designated federal funds to improve the state response to child abuse, especially in the domains of investigation and reporting. Congress then passed the Indian Child Welfare ACT (ICWA) in 1978, mandating that child abuse cases regarding children permanently residing on a reservation be decided by the tribal court. It also mandated that tribes be notified of child abuse cases regarding children not living on the reservation and afforded tribes the right to intervene in these cases. The goal of this legislation was to reduce the disproportionately high number of Native American children being removed from their homes, often without sufficient cause.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Regional Trade Arrangements Of Africa And Their Motives Essay

2. Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa and Their Motives Regionalism has become one of the buzz words in international trade diplomacy nowadays. There is almost no country in the world which does not have membership in one or two regional economic integrations, and the coverage and scope of these arrangements have grown more than ever before. Different authors have used different approaches to define the concept of regional integration. Therefore, it is important to discuss the definitions of economic integration according to the most prominent authors in the field of regional integration before taking on the theoretical and empirical literatures of the concept. One of the widely accepted definitions of economic integration is that of Balassa (1961), which is defined as â€Å"the abolition of discrimination within an area†. Another very important definition of economic integration relevant to developing countries is that of Kahnert, P. Richards, Stoutjesdijk, and Thomopoulos (1969). According to these authors, economic integration is â€Å"the process of progressive removal of trade discriminations which occur at national borders†. Furthermore, Machlup (1977) defines economic integration as a process of merging separate economies into a larger economic region with the objective of realizing the efficient utilization of all potential opportunities of the division of labor. From the above definitions, it can be inferred that all the definitions spin around one central point; andShow MoreRelatedThe Direction Of Bilateral Trade Flows Across Countries Or Regional Economic Blocs Essay2172 Words   |  9 Pages4.2. Conclusion This study has indicated that there are some differences as to what determines the direction of bilateral trade flows across countries or regional economic blocs. The motives behind the formation of such arrangements disparate from region to region hence, there are differing arguments that explain the rationale for their set up. Developing countries’ regional blocs in general, African ones in particular, are often criticized for being politically oriented and this view has been partiallyRead MoreImpact of Globalization on the World Tourism 1155 Words   |  5 Pagesto visit any part of the world he/she can be there with in no time. The countries have progressed in terms of infrastructure, technology, transportation and communication. The policies which allow global trade have enabled businesses to use the natural resources from any part of the world. Trade has also been successful in bringing together different people and cultures. Until the beginning of 21st century, the effect of globalization was not visible to the economies in the world. 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It was formed in 1995 after growing out of and extending the institution of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. As of the thirtieth of November 2000, the WTO has 140 member-countries, overRead MoreEssay on The Global Divide Between the Rich and Poor2100 Words   |  9 Pagesand economic information that highlights some of the information, impressions, and ideals of the situation. Political Governments around the world have been following neoliberal economic policies of the north for several years, and in the process, trade barriers disappear, public industries are privatized, and corporations have grown large enough that now (instead of the English Empire) the sun never sets on them. Privatization has created many opportunities for these countries to grow, especiallyRead MoreWelcome to the World of Sony - Unless the Yen Keeps Rising4976 Words   |  20 Pages[pic] HOMEWORK OF IBM FDI MOTIVES ASSOC.PROF. 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Sample Reproduction Methods For Non-Target Screening

Non-target screening aims to obtain an overview of the sample constituents and identifies all the eligible peaks in the sample. The soil samples contaminated by electroplating wastewater usually contain a large amount of organic pollutants with high matrix interferences (Zhao 2013). In order to choose an effective sample extraction method, three commonly used extraction methods including accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), Soxhlet extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) (Wang 2007, Rodriguez-Solana 2015, and Jurado-Sanchez 2013) have been compared based on the previous reports. Among these methods, ASE provides the best extraction efficiency for extracting most semi-volatile organic compounds in soil samples with short†¦show more content†¦Stock solutions were prepared in isooctane, and then diluted into seven concentration levels, from 1 to 500  µg/L. The stock solution was kept at -18  °C until use. The internal standard solution with a concentration of 100 ÃŽ ¼g/L was diluted from an Internal Standard Mix purchased from AccuStandard (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) and used to determine the concentration of target compounds by calculating the response factor, noting that the selected internal standards were stable and similar to the analytes and would not interfere with the sample components. The surrogate standard solution was prepared at 10 mg/L for nitrobenzene-d5 and p-terphenyl-d14 for performing the quality control function, since its recovery rate was used to evaluate the efficiency of the analytical method. The organic solvents, of analytical grade, were purchased from JK scientific LTD (Beijing, China). Sample information and Sample Preparation In this study, three soil samples were chosen for the analysis and explanation of the whole workflow. Two soil samples were collected from a leaching basin (Boxing, Shandong Province, China), surrounded by two small electroplating factories and polluted by electroplating wastewater. Sample #1 and Sample #2 were taken from the top layer soil (0–20 cm) and middle layer soil (20–50 cm) of the leaching basin bottom using a soilShow MoreRelatedNon Clinical Studies : The Discovery Of A New Drug Without Involving Human Subjects1798 Words   |  8 PagesNon clinical Studies for Biologic The discovery of a new drug without involving human subjects is called as non clinical studies. 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Hyperactive reproduction of abnormal cells or cancer cells will develop into lumps that may either be benign or malignant. Benign masses are non-cancerous and usually remain in the same area from which they formed in the body. Malignant masses on the other hand are cancerous and tend to spreadRead MoreThe Fluidity Of Cloning : Gender Norms Racial Bias3913 Words   |  16 Pagesor software. Molecular cloning Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprinting to large scale protein production. 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The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be completeRead MoreGlobal Marketing Summary Chapter 5-106416 Words   |  26 PagesInfringement of Intellectual Property †¢ Counterfeiting—unauthorized copying and production of a product †¢ Associative counterfeit/imitation—product name differs slightly from a well-known brand †¢ Piracy—unauthorized publication or reproduction of copyrighted work †¢ Intellectual Property Protecting Intellectual Property †¢ In the United States, registration is with the Federal Patent Office †¢ In Europe, applicants use the European Patent Office or register countryRead More History of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Essay5178 Words   |  21 Pageschemokine receptor, CCR5, bound HIV strains that dominate in the early stages of the disease. Researchers are continuously discovering more chemokine receptors. Any human cell that has the correct binding molecules on its surface is a potential target for HIV infection. However, it is the specific class of human white blood cells called CD4 T-cells that are most affected by HIV because these cells have high concentrations of the CD4 molecule on their outer surfaces. HIV replication in CD4 T-cellsRead MoreDevelopment Of The Mammary Gland9524 Words   |  39 Pagessecond leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women around the world with more than reported 500,000 deaths per year. Breast cancer deaths have decreased by 42 percent since the peak in 1986 due to earlier detection through regular mammography screening. However, one in 29 Canadian women will die from breast cancer. These statistics remain unchanged over the past year. 2.2 Cause of breast cancer Breast cancer is always caused by a genetic abnormality. However, only 5-10% of cancers are due toRead MoreRelationship Between Culture and the Clinical Practice of Psychological Assessment8526 Words   |  35 Pagesvisited schools in the rural areas not too far from the city where we lived. The purpose of the visit was to see whether the teachers wanted to be trained to use a developmental screening test so that the results could be used to help them tailor their instruction to the needs of their learners. We had the notion that the almost non-existent pre-school facilities in rural areas together with impoverished living and economic conditions would impact negatively on childrens development. Our preconceived

Energy of a Tossed Ball free essay sample

The purpose for the students of the Energy of a Tossed Ball Lab involved learning how to measure the change in kinetic and potential energies as a ball moves in free fall. Since there is no frictional forces working on the ball the total energy will remain constant and the students will see how the total energy of the ball changes during free fall. HYPOTHESIS: 1. The ball has potential energy while momentarily at rest at the top of the path. 2. The ball contains kinetic energy while in motion near the bottom of its path. The ball gains potential energy as it moves upward, because of its position, until the ball reaches its max point where potential energy is the most. The ball loses potential energy on its way down. 6. 7. The kinetic graph was correct as my hypothesis. My potential graph did not start in the same position as my data graph. We will write a custom essay sample on Energy of a Tossed Ball or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 9. The total energy is constant for most of the time until the ball is released and caught up and down in free fall, because extra force of the person actions changes the energy. The energy should remain constant because the kinetic and potential ratio energy cancel each other out because the Law Conservation of Energy. Extensions: 1. The total energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy would be less if a person used a very light ball, because energy is dependent of mass. More percent energy loss would be lost because the energy applied at the release would be less than the pull of energy of gravity. 2. If different mass was entered in the data the total energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy would be different because the energy is dependent of the mass. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: 1. I learned how the total energy will remain constant if no frictional forces are acted on a tossed ball. Using the velocity vs. time graph I learned that the ball had zero velocity at the top of its motion upward. I noticed the conservation of energy is correct because only 19. 87% of energy was lost. The energy lost was slim. Also the graphs of potential and kinetic energy are the opposite in which as time increase the potential energy increase as the kinetic energy decreases. When the ball is at the top of its motion the potential energy is at its highest and the kinetic energy is low. I learned that the total energy remains constant because the potential and kinetic energy ratios cancel each other out while the ball is in motion. 2. The errors in this lab would be when the person tossed the ball into the air their hand may have affected the data collection when the person caught the ball. 3. I would how to change how to collect data of the ball being tossed in the air without anything interfering.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Verbatim Family and Time free essay sample

Care of the Dying and Bereaved Verbatim Report of a Pastoral Visit Chaplain Your Initials: GAR Location of Visit: At Its home Time of Visit: 1430 Date of Visit: May 29, 2013 Date written: June 8, 2013 Preliminary Data Age: 88 Gender: Female Religious Preference: Seventh-day Adventist Referral: Y/N? N Initial Observations/Facts # of Prior Visits: 3 My initial visit with UT was a couple of months ago when my husband and I were approached to help with the relocation of a bed to make room for a hospice bed. During the first visit as we were introduced to the couple, I became aware that the tenant sent home to die with hospice is a retired pastor with the Seventh-day Adventist church. He spent all his life as a missionary and pioneer for our church. Within a week he died and I bumped into the wife (UT) outside of church a few weeks after his death and she asked if I could come by to visit with her. This is my third visit with her. As I enter Its home I notice the blinds down and curtains drawn. There is a lamp turned on dimly and in the recliner sits UT. Next to the recliner is a table with her cup of tea, her bible and a Journal. The walls are covered with pictures of the couple ND their children from all over the world where they ministered. I can see the kitchen from where I stand and there are boxes stacked up on the counter and stove which lets me know that she is not cooking for herself. She invites me to sit down. Goals I chose this visit to do a write up as a verbatim because this is my third time with Mrs. UT. My visits with her are grief related as she is mourning the loss of her husband. They had been married for seventy years. I would like to focus on how I helped her begin the grieving process. Pastoral Visit P = Patient H ”Husband D ”Daughter CLC: Hello, UT, Its Gilda Rowdy; I thought Id stop by to see how you are doing since our last visit? (The phone rang and when UT answered it she spoke in a low voice. I was aware I felt anxious and wondered if I should excuse myself. ) Pl: The pastor is here D and I have been waiting for her visit, can I call you later? Bye darling. (She hung up the phone). Its my daughter; Ill call her later. CO: The last time I was here we talked about your support system. How is that going? PA: As you know, I had a lot of family and friends visit after H died, now I am definitely feeling the emptiness and loneliness. I sometimes hear H calling my name like he used to and I respond like I used to and then realize that he is dead and it is lust wishful thinking. (She pauses) CO: (After some silence), it is quite normal that you would hear your husband after all the two of you have been together for over seventy years. Tell me, how are you coping? PA: Gilda, Its hard. I cant remember life without him (she starts sobbing). We got married on my eighteenth birthday. I was young but back then, its what you did. I was the oldest of thirteen kids. When I met H he promised me the world and I remember laughing at him. He kept his promise. I have visited and lived in some of the most untouched parts of the world. CO: How was it for you to leave your family? (l was aware of my own pain of leaving my family, as I left home at eighteen leaving the southern hemisphere heading to the northern hemisphere to study) PA: To tell you the truth, I missed my family a lot, but there was something about marrying a pastor and traveling the world. I was excited and looked forward to an adventure, something I had never experienced before. There were times when life was no so easy but for the most part H and I lived a life of adventure. CO: Tell me a little about when life was not easy? AS: One of trying times was when we spent seven months in the Solomon Island. (She pointed too picture of her and her husband with a local tribe). We were told by the General Conference to be extra careful and not to go out at night. Most of them were cannibals you see. I was terrified, but H said we should trust in God, so we went safety during our time there. When we found out I was 4 months pregnant H said it was time for us to go home. I was relieved. CO: I can only imagine what that must have been like for you? It sounds though that you lived a very exciting life, the life your husband promised. PA: Exactly, it was so exciting . God truly blessed us. He blessed us with safety and health most importantly. When it was time for us to retire, we both knew we had accomplished all we set out to do. God would be pleased I thought. We decided to retire in Loam Linda since we had two children here and our grand children. CO: Tell me about your relationship with your children and grand children? PA: We were quite blessed even up to the time when H was dying the kids would come by every Friday night to start the Sabbath with us, the grand kids would sing to him and bring their instruments and play for him. You should have seen the last time we worshiped together. I know Jesus and His angels were watching down on us. CO: How has it been since Hes death? PA: Oh, the kids and grand kids still come by and we still have worship, its Just that. (Then she paused) CGI: What it, UT? PA: Well after the kids and grand used to leave we would always talk about each one and reminisce on stories and then pray for each one of them. Now that H is gone I feel angry that he is not here for me to do that. CIO: I can see how that would make you feel angry. Is there a way that you can still reminisce and pray for your family? POI: It Just hurts so much, and once everyone leaves its Just me and all these memories. Its silly; I have been blessed with so many wonderful years with H, but feel robbed of my time with him. Call: I dont think it silly at all. I think its beautiful that you would want to spend more time with your husband. I see you as a role model for all couples, especially ones married to pastors. I know that it can be tough at times but the two of you by Gods grace made it through. Pl 1: Enjoy your husband and dont take time for granted. Loneliness is very dark. CO: Tell me about your loneliness? What does it look like for you? Alone. After you have spent every waking moment with your soul mate living without IM is dark. CO: I am so sorry. What do you think you can do to move out of this darkness? PAP: I live in this wonderful community where there are always activities going on. I guess I could be sociable and Join some fun activities. They have invited me; I Just havent had the courage to go alone. CO: Thats understandable, from what you are telling me you are showing appropriate emotions for one whos loved one has died. PAP: It really helps talking about this with you. I appreciate you stopping by. CO: I am happy to check in with you every couple of weeks if you like. PAP: I would like that very much, feel free to bring you kids too they are so sweet and polite, you hardly see that nowadays. The first time we met the couple to help them relocate the bed the kids came along and while Jordan and I took the bed apart the kids sang for the couple). CO: I noticed the boxes in the kitchen, how are you managing for food. PAP: You are very observant. I asked my grand kids to box up Hes books and someone from relive will be picking it up. We always wanted to make sure someone would get good use out of them, although these days with the internet. But to answer your question, my children are bringing my meals every day. I am blessed I tell you. CO: I am glad to hear that. Well it was nice visiting with you. May I pray for you before I leave? PAP: You wouldnt be a pastor is you didnt (she chuckled). CO: I took her hand and prayed. Dear Heavenly father, I thank you for UT. It is evident after our time together that she has a strong faith and relationship with you. You alone know her pain as she grieves the death of H. You alone can feel her loneliness in this house. I pray for your comfort and care as she mourns the loss of H. Please help her with her loneliness, UT most important of all help her with the relationship she will make within this community. Bless her children and grand children as UT finds a way to continue praying for them. Thank you Father for coordinating our paths. In Jesus name we pray amen. CO: Ill check back with you in a couple of weeks. See you later. Evaluation I have grown to really appreciate UT, I am aware of my own sense of loss as my grandmother passed away some years ago and I watched my grandfather grapple with learning how to live without his soul mate. I feel I listened to Its concern regarding her loneliness as I guided her in finding ways to be around people. I did not want to become a crutch for her or providing her with solutions therefore being an enabler. I realize her pain of losing her loved one after seventy years of marriage. She expressed a healthy way of grieving, and I am happy to Journey that with her as I encourage her to lean on children and grandkids who are clearly attached to their mother. Theological/Spiritual Reflection As I reflect on my visit with UT, I see it as a theologically sound visit due to our same faith background. In our previous visit she mentioned that she would no doubt be reunited with H again at Jesus second coming. We rejoiced in the fact that we have such hope and at the same time were very aware of this world marred with sin. Mourning is a healthy way to deal with the loss of a loved one as Jesus himself wept for His friend Lazarus. I was encouraged to see a couple sustain the trials of life and remain together for so many years. As a minister I know the struggles that accompanies a couple who choose to follow Gods calling. It is not always the easiest road to Journey on. Couples who sustain the test of time through prayer and perseverance are few and far between. This is not the norm in our society.

Friday, April 17, 2020

Expository Essay Sample - How to Write an Essay That Works

Expository Essay Sample - How to Write an Essay That WorksThere are many good reasons to write an expository essay, and many different methods. For some, this is a means of researching the field. For others, it is meant to be the backbone of a persuasive argument that will make a reader to engage with a particular topic or idea.The method that you choose to write your essay is up to you. What is important, however, is that you are able to stick to your target topic. This means that you have to pick a point of interest for you to write about.Do you have life experience that you can bring to the essay? Perhaps you have had a certain type of event, such as a death in the family or a marriage proposal that you want to use. Maybe you have written something about an aspect of a person's personality or life experiences that you wish to include. The more data and details you can provide the better.It is also important that your essay is original. You should not copy the style or content of a nother essay. If you do, it will look like you are copy-pasting. Instead, you should write your own style of essay so that it stands out from the crowd.One way to ensure that your essay sample is original is to create your own title. Choose something related to the topic. You should not think that having a title will help you make your essay look better or convince people to read it.However, if you have a lot of free time on your hands, you might want to consider creating your own title. An important part of writing an essay is creating a nice title that will spark interest. However, even if you decide to create your own title, make sure that it has nothing to do with the main point of the essay. For example, if you are writing about air travel, do not use the word 'air'flight' in your title.Once you have made your choice of essay topic, the next step is to write your expository essay. Keep in mind that there are a few different methods of writing, but some of them work better than others.You can use as little or as much information as you need, depending on your goal. Whether you are looking to inform or persuade, there are several ways to go about making your essay look its best.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Quality Management in Health Care System in Nigeria A Case Study of Isalu Hospitals Limited, Ogba, Lagos free essay sample

INTRODUCTION In this age, hospital services have gone beyond the conventional way of doctors sitting in their clinics, reading newspapers or engaging in other vain discussions hoping that patients would patronise their healthcare services. Various private hospitals have carved out a niche for themselves using relationship management, customer relations and hospital marketing techniques to expand their business. Although the prime aim of hospital/healthcare establishments is to save lives, the truth is that private healthcare services are profit-driven as owners have to cater for various expenses and overheads to keep the business moving. Those who run healthcare business grapple with regular payment of staff salary, procurement of new medical equipment, maintenance of computers and buildings, payment of electricity bills, procurement and fuelling of power generators, maintenance of official vehicles, communication expenses, staff seminars and printing of receipts, appointment cards and medical report sheets. Just like a good product, a good hospital service sells itself. We will write a custom essay sample on Quality Management in Health Care System in Nigeria: A Case Study of Isalu Hospitals Limited, Ogba, Lagos or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This comes mostly through testimonials from people who have practically experienced the service(s). But a good product or service cannot, by itself, propagate its services to the users. Certain machinery should be put in place to achieve this end. Although medical bodies such as Nigeria Medical Association strictly prohibits hospital advertising, the dynamic nature of medical business, not only in Nigeria but globally, has made it mandatory for Health Maintenance Organisations (HMOs) to place their advertisements on the pages of newspapers, over the radio/television and on the Internet under the guise of health insurance, since insurance does not forbid advertising its services to various target groups. Good customer care/ relationship management matters in healthcare business because keeping the existing clients—that is, the patients—seems easier than getting the new ones, as satisfied clients will do a lot of our testimonial appeals for us to the new prospects. Some people will use our service on the recommendation of a friend or sibling. This is because patient who feels good experiencing our medical service is most likely to stay with the healthcare and make recommendations to others about us. In these days of sophisticated and well educated customers, patients look beyond coming to the hospital and being attended to in the â€Å"usual manner†. They want to experience an informal contact (tactile communication); they want the doctor to tell them what they don’t know in medicine because many of them have already googled their internet to know about their ailments before consultation; they want to feel like they are in their homes; they want to feel that they are in safe hands and they want to be healed by the words of mouth of the doctors in charge, nurses on duty as well as all other contact points— i. . the staff—in the hospital. Hospitals therefore establish mutual relationship with several HMOs as well as corporate companies (on retainership) and families or private patients to garner more companies on their clientele. STAGES OF COMPANY DEVELOPMENT Various business organisations launch their products/services into the market to claim some mar ket share. Right from the time a product or service is newly introduced, there is always scramble among companies that offer similar services or produce parity products to have some comfortable share of the market to their advantage. In order to achieve this, most producers or service companies have good positioning of their USP. Some hospitals have ATM where patients can easily withdraw money to settle their medical bills without any stress of going to the bank. Some have supermarkets where people on appointment can take some bread with drink before taking their drugs or injections. Others have immaculate environment befitting of a healthcare. Each of these is a strength, a unique selling point (USP) for their medical business. (a)Pioneering stage— This refers to when services are new to the prospective clients. They are only being introduced. Concepts are created. Proposals are developed and companies, HMOs as well as individuals are being convinced to use such medical services. Many companies die at this stage and never make it to the competitive stage. (b)Competitive stage— Most service companies or products remain at this stage throughout their life cycle. Here market acceptance has been met by a service company as certain percentage of the market share has been claimed. Many hospitals especially private ones can be categorised under this stage. The more quality medical service they provide, the more competitive and recommendable they become. c)Retentive Stage—This is the highest point a product or service company can achieve. Although not all products or service companies get to this stage, it is not impossible for any healthcare establishment to get there in Lagos State for instance. It is not always easy to get to the top and retaining it is more tasking. At this stage, the superiority of a company ser vice over all service providers will be established, making it command more clients and greater market share . DEFINITION OF TERMS For the purpose of exposition, I will like to define the following words—quality, management and healthcare respectively. Quality In the estimation of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 2005 edition, the word quality is defined as how good or bad something is. It goes further†¦something that is typical of one thing and makes it different from other things, for example size, colour etc this may be a unique way of doing things. We may settle for this last definition of the word quality by the same lexicon: a high standard. Management Management can be defined as the activity of controlling and organising the work being carried out in an oganisation. The word ‘management’ also means the people who are in charge of a company. According to Kreitner (1980), management is a â€Å"problem-solving process of effectively achieving organisational objectives through the efficient use of scarce resources in a changing environment†. The universally accepted functions of management are planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling, according to Onifade (1999). Healthcare Simply put, healthcare refers to the service of providing medical care to different categories of people. By classification, there are primary and secondary healthcare systems. Primary healthcare refers to the patient’s first contact for health care. It deals with general health problems which are mostly handled by GPs. They are hospitals dealing with health problems such as malaria and other basic illnesses and accidents while secondary healthcare system is a branch of healthcare that deals with specialised and more technical areas such as paediatrics, surgery, gynaecology, ophthalmology and many others. A healthcare provider can therefore be defined as a hospital where medical care is provided in various forms: laboratory investigation/diagnosis, clinical analysis, medical check-up, edical advice, surgery, blood transfusion, admission and so forth. Quality management in healthcare should be seen as a problem-solving process. How qualitative are the processes in our hospitals today? Are they of high standard or otherwise? The problem-solving process in any hospital environment cuts across all the contact points of the system—right from the gatemen through the customer service executives, the nurses, the laboratory scienti sts, the pharmacists to the consulting room. This chain does not exclude the maintenance officers, the cleaners, administrative staff, the kitchen executives, the security men and all others that have one role or the other to play in the process of caring and live-saving. Quality management in healthcare will be examined in the following key areas viz: ? Information management ?Patient management ?Staff management ?Relationship management ?Human Resource Management. ?Corporate Social Responsibility Information management: This bothers on how organisational messages are communicated in our hospitals, vertically or horizontally? Are messages well relayed to their proper destinations? How do heads of departments in the healthcare system manage hospital information at their disposal? Do we maintain the professional secrecy in the job? Many of us are aware of doctor-patient confidentiality for instance. The laboratory scientist has a lot of information at his disposal. Does he shield the information from the third party? Does he label accurately his specimen to avoid mix-up of laboratory results to the patients? Are our nurses used to discussing such information casually? Do people divulge the hospital’s classified information to the outsiders? These are heart-throbbing questions practitioners in healthcare should examine deeply from time to time. Telephone reception in hospital environment is another vital area where many hospital owners do not take seriously. Many nurses and other administrative healthcare workers lack telephone etiquette. In hospital environment, telephone reception should exceptionally be handled with courtesies and empathy because all patients calling the hospital lines, whether through the ntercom or hotlines, day or night are not doing so in vain or for pleasure. Many patients on admission are distressed and need urgent attention. The ringing of an emergency bell should serve as a saving grace to the in-patients. Some patient is in pains and wants to know if he should continue his dosage or come over to the clinic—this has to be confirmed from the doctor almost immediately because the patient is waiting on the pho ne. Some patient will call to know when doctor A, B or C will be on duty because she has confidence in their treatment and prescriptions. An enrollee will want to know if he has been delisted by his HMO or whether his brother-in-law can come with his card and be treated on fee for service. We must not wait for the third ring before springing into action. This will prove us as real life-savers. The manner and approach by which a hospital staff attends to any of these patients in terms of the information they need will, to a large extent, depict the quality of service available in such a healthcare. Patient management: How do we manage our patients? Do we value one patient over another because of their differing backgrounds? Do we give them the required attention needed at all times? For how long do we delay them especially when they are distressed or in pains? As healthcare practitioners, do we give them due recognition as soon as they enter our facility? Whether an HMO, retainership or private patient, all patients must be accorded courtesies, recognition, sympathy and attention. Are the nurses giving them the total nursing care most hospitals/HMOs promised on the pages of their profiles, tracts or website? Do hospitals design and administer questionnaires on patients’ satisfaction/dissatisfaction of their medical services so as to improve on various areas? Areas such as drug efficacy, hospital hygiene, doctor’s competence, nurses’ attitude and laboratory test results should be appraised by healthcare management as feedbacks from the patients. However, the best way to get feedback from patients is through interpersonal discussions and interview. By this, the healthcare practitioner can read beyond verbal discussions. This will help them improve on areas of deficiencies and at the same time know their strength. At times, in some hospitals, nurses are fond of passing the buck as to who will take the vital signs for a patient who is in pains or who will clean the medical pack. This attitude gives a negative impression of our ladies(men too work as nurses! ) clad in immaculate white to save lives. A patient is ethically and professionally protected on any medical information relating to them. Healthcare professionals especially doctors should protect their patients in this relationship because it is the right of the latter. Common observations have revealed that hospital practitioners like nurses and laboratory scientists in some instances are fond of discussing the confidential document or medical status of patients openly with colleagues to the hearing of other patients or even outsiders. Apart from the fact that this practice is unethical, it shows a betrayal of trust on the part of these supposed ‘professionals’ who are expected to be guardians of patients’ confidential information. Patients with some pain should not be further unleashed with psychological pains through careless gist by healthcare staff during/after working hours. Some health workers would gossip in their OPD that so-so patient is XYZ, whereas a large percentage of people who visit hospitals these days are well aware that a patient whose card is marked XYZ is HIV positive. Although dynamic hospitals are finding alternative terms as tags on their patients’ files, doctor’s reports or medical examination forms, all allied workers to the doctors in the healthcare should be well sensitised on the trauma such patients go through when their ailment is divulged to strangers without their consent. Another area of patient management in the healthcare is prescription and administration of drugs. This area largely constitutes the output of doctors’ diagnosis/treatment. Patients will always accuse the providers of prescribing or dishing out ineffective drugs. The doctors on their part blame this on the economic system/proliferation of fake drugs since they are not the manufacturers of these drugs. Healthcare practitioners such as doctors and pharmacists should collaborate with NHIS, NMA and Pharmacists Association to tackle the problem of drug fakery in the country while each healthcare establishment should source their drugs from registered pharmaceutical companies such as Fidson, Evans, Reals, Emzor, Beecham or Pfizer for instance. This will make them achieve desired results in treatment of their patients. Oftentimes, patients never complete their drug dosage as prescribed by doctors. Sadly, they expect good result. But what we are told in medicine is that if a patient fails to complete the last two of a 4-4-2 anti-malarial drug at a specified time, for instance, such patient has to start all over again or take a complete dosage of another anti-malarial on doctor’s prescription. Patients should be oriented, by doctors, on dangers of not completing their drugs. Staff management: If you smile at a mirror, amazingly, it smiles back at you. This basically concerns the management of a healthcare whether government-owned or private. How do we manage our staff? Do we pay them as at when due? Do we express that a staff is more important than the other? Do we value viable ideas/proposals from members of staff or jettison them into the trash bin? An organised healthcare should realize that a tree does not make a forest. It should make all its members of staff work as team. For example, players in a football team cannot afford to play in disarray and achieve fruitful result. So is the practice in the theatre, in the labour and even during emergency. The combination of the efforts of the nurses, domestic staff, doctors and the laboratory scientist yield the desired result of life-saving. Members of staff in the healthcare should be team-players to achieve the high professional standard in our society. A hungry man, they say, is an angry man. Since the living of healthcare workers too largely depends on their salary, all stake-holders in the health sector should realize that prompt payment of workers’ salaries amounts to saving their (workers’)own lives too. Since they are the engine room of an organisation, they must be considered by the management of individual organisation as most important. Their sweat, their energy, their ideas and commitment to various responsibilities assigned to them will—in the long run—make the organisation achieve its objectives. The good treatment of the internal publics by the management always reflects on the output of the business. Private hospitals should encourage research, paper presentations among staff and sponsor them for seminars so that they impact this for more efficiency in their healthcare establishments. Relationship management: Good interpersonal relationship in any organisation is the key to achieving success and growth. If certain colleagues are not in good talking terms, there can never be a quality management—problem solving process—in that organisation, especially in the healthcare where workers’ primary business is to save lives. Therefore, there should be good relationship between the staff and the top management; between the customer service and the nursing departments; between the domestic and the administrative department and so forth. All the departments of our hospitals or other healthcares like HMOs should be able to work as a team. As a former relationship manager in the healthcare, I had always got back to various departments/units on feedbacks from our clients to achieve this purpose. All forms of biases should be cancelled and a third party should always mediate between two conflicting groups or individuals. Quality management in our hospitals requires the concerted efforts of all people involved. Below is a sample questionnaire of Isalu Hospitals Limited, Ogba, Lagos on service evaluation: - Hospital Service Evaluation fig 1. Poor Satisfactory Good Excellent Caring attitude of doctors Nurses’ competence Neatness of our hospital environment Communication/listening skills Infrastructure: A/C, TV, Computers Performance of housekeepers Can you recommend our hospital to your family member/friend? Yes No Other comments†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. The above questionnaire was administered on 100 patients using Isalu Hospitals, Lagos in June 2009 and the following were the responses received. In all, 82 of the respondents said they could recommend the hospital(in terms of its ser vices) to their family and friends while 18 were indifferent. 70 of them rated doctors’ performance as good, 21 as satisfactory and 9 as excellent. 65 of the respondents said the nurses’ performance was satisfactory, 25 said it was good and 10 said it was excellent. Under communication skills, 30 of the respondents ticked satisfactory, 33 ticked good and 37 excellent respectively. Also, 25% of the respondents ticked satisfactory, 35% ticked good while 40% ticked excellent under hygiene. On other comments,65 of the patient respondents said the hospital’s bill was high, 20% said the hospital needed a bigger space while 15% were indifferent. The data can be vividly represented in fig. 1A, fig. 1B and fig. 1C respectively: fig. 1A fig 1B Fig 1C Basically there are two categories of people working in Isalu Hospitals. These are what I coin as: (a)Professional healthcare practitioners (b)Professionals in healthcare practice PROFESSIONAL HEALTHCARE PRACTITIONERS These are people who have received education and training in hospital-related courses such as medicine, nursing, pharmacy, laboratory science and so forth. They are our doctors, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists/technicians etc PROFESSIONALS IN HEALTHCARE PRACTICE All healthcare workers coming from backgrounds different from medicine and other allied courses are referred to as professionals in healthcare. These professionals are recruited from areas like Accounting, Banking and Finance, Business Administration, Marketing, Personnel Management, Economics, Mass Communication etc to be part of the problem-solving process in the hospital environment. Isalu Hospitals, like other healthcare organisation, is segmented into sundry departments based on the two categories mentioned above. Though some jobs are more professional oriented than others in this hospital, the jobs of the two categories are inextricably intertwined to achieve the desired objective, which is high standard. In order to continue to achieve professional excellence in our healthcare system, through human capital development, members of staff should undergo periodic training relevant to their background and job description. Human Resource Management: The most valued assets of any organisation are the people who may make or mar the quality management in such an establishment. Otherwise known as Human Capital Management (HCM), Human Resource Management is the strategic function of managing an establishment’s most valued assets—the staff of such an organisation. The human resources department of any organisation is charged with not only employing but training, developing, directing and managing various talents in the workforce and as well putting in place development process in the organisation. The department responsible for recruiting the workforce in the healthcare, be it private or government-owned, should be competent enough to hire the right people. Both professional practitioners and other professionals in the profession should comprise this department. This will give room for people of right attitude, coupled with academic merits, to harness the system. Corporate Social Responsibility: Both private and government healthcare should be socially responsible to their immediate society. Isalu Hospitals for instance, publishes and distributes tracts that treat different topics in medicine. As part of its social responsibility, between 2008 and 2009 alone, more than N1m was expended on some portions of Wempco Road by the management of the hospitals not only to ease the traffic congestion but to alleviate motorcycle accidents on the sharp bend of the road to the hospital from Agidingbi Road. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Since the primary aim of establishment of healthcare institutions in Nigeria and elsewhere in the world is to save lives as well as care for people in pains and sicknesses, owners and administrators of hospitals and HMO’s should ensure quality management in this respect. National Health Insurance Scheme (HNIS) which constitutes the compass between the primary/secondary providers and the HMO’s should not renege on its efforts to separate the grain from the chaff in healthcare industry in Nigeria to ensure quality healthcare standard we deserve. In January 2010, the NHIS suspended further accreditation of Health Maintenance Organisations (HMO’s) and Healthcare Providers (HCP’s) for one year, justifying, inter alia, that â€Å"Only 816 of the 3, 012 accredited primary healthcare providers have 500 lives (patients/enrollees) and above† and there was the need â€Å" to strengthen the scheme and improve quality of healthcare services delivery through re-accreditation processes† The Governing Council of the NHIS further stated in the advertorial that â€Å"( i) Only twenty-seven (27) of the sixty-one (61) HMOs operating under NHIS formal sector programme have lives (ii) Reports of re-accreditation exercises show that HMOs have not made sufficient progress in folding in Organised Private Sector (OPS) and other tiers of government into the scheme†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. (iv) The need to shift focus to re-accreditation processes of HMOs with the view to improving access to quality hea lthcare. † The National Health Insurance Scheme should be further encouraged by the Federal Ministry of Health in making the quality management realistic. To achieve quality management in both government and rivate healthcare in Nigeria, only competent healthcare practitioners and other professionals who are ready for the challenges of the job should be employed and continually trained. It is also high time all the healthcare administrators as well as practitioners valued the sanctity of human lives. There should be a way of instituting a health security system where people’s lives will be guaranteed first—whether in times of accident, serious illness or delivery—whenever they are rushed into the hospitals in Nigeria. This may be through the HMOs or government hospitals. Hundreds of thousands of Nigerians have lost their lives because there was nobody to make financial deposit on their behalf for doctors to commence treatment. The social security gesture in the health sector should start from the government, perhaps through some allocation of some sort from the yearly budgets to the government hospitals in the first instance. Other registered healthcare with the government and the NHIS should be considered. GLOSSARY OF TERMS OPD: The out-patient department of a hospital where patients wait to be attended to by a nurse or doctor. It is a large room where people also wait to see the in-patients—hospital reception. HMO: Also known as Health Insurance, Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO) is responsible for insuring people’s health through a payment called capitation. GP: General Practitioner (GP) is a doctor who has been trained in general medicine. IN-PATIENTS: Patients who are on admission in a hospital because they need special attention by the doctor. PAEDIATRICS: A branch of medicine that deals with care and treatment of children. A paediatrician is a specialist who diagnoses and treats children of their illnesses. SURGERY: A branch of medicine concerned with treatment of diseases, deformities, and injuries through operations on patients. GYNAECOLOGY: A branch of medicine that deals with diseases and fertility especially in women. A gynaecologist is a specialist in this area. OPHTHALMOLOGY: A specialisation in medicine concerned with the function, care as well as the disorders which affects the eyes. An ophthalmologist is a specialist that treats eye disorders. ENROLLEE: A patient who has registered with an HMO to receive medical care from a provider (hospital). TOTAL NURSING CARE: The kind of care that requires all the attention of the nurses to the patients during illness, accident and recovery. PROVIDER: A hospital that provides medical service to enrollees especially under HMO DOCTOR-PATIENT CONFIDENTIALITY: Professional secrecy in medical profession where patients enjoy confidentiality in matters relating to their health. It is unethical of a doctor and other health practitioners to divulge such information without the patient’s consent. VITAL SIGNS: The basic signs and symptoms of illness taken by nurses to assist doctors in diagnosis. They are routine checks including the temperature, pulse, blood pressure, blood/urine analysis and physical examination to evaluate organ function. FEE FOR SERVICE: A medical fee charged on an enrollee who has enjoyed medical service in a healthcare where they are not covered or registered under an HMO. Bibliography 1) Katib, I. K. (2008) Corporate Identity: Telephone Reception for Isalu Hospitals Limited A customer service presentation. 2) Katib, I. K. (2009) Isalu Hospitals: Beyond the Competitive Stage, A Paper Presentation at Isalu Hospitals Limited, Ogba, Lagos. 3) Katib, I. K. (2010) Telephone Paradigm for Crescent University: A Practical Approach, A Paper Presented at A One-Day Seminar, Facilitated by Public Relations Unit, Crescent University, Abeokuta. 4) Katib, I. K. (2010) Listening to your USP, A newspaper article published by Crescent Voice, Accreditation Special, June 2010, page 6. 5) Kreitner, R. (1980) Management: A Problem-solving Process, USA: Houghton Mufflin Company 6) Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.  © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. 7) Oketola, D. (2009) Growing Business through Effective Talent Management, Adapted from The Punch Friday June 19, 2009. ) Onifade, A. (1999) Effect of Change and Time Management on Attainment of Organisational Goals, Adapted from The Polymath, 1999 Edition. 9) Osho, S. (1999) Political Public Relations and National Stability, Jedidiah Publishers, Abeokuta, Nigeria 10)Osunbiyi, B. (1999) Advertising Spiral, from Advertising: Principles and Practice, Gbenga Gbesan Publications, Abeokuta, Ogun State 11)Summers, D. (2005) Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Pearson Education Limited, Essex England. 12)Widdowson, H. (2006) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Seventh Edition.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich vs. Invictuus the essays

One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich vs. Invictuus the essays In both One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich by Alexander Solzhenitsyn and "Invictus" by Henley, the speakers are faced with the same raging physical and physiological battles. They both take different existentialist methods to assure survival in different situations. Existentialism is the belief that there is no higher being to rely on, you must guide yourself through life and make your own decisions and rely only on yourself. The narrator of Invictus basically tells of a misfortune that has occurred in his life and how no matter what problems occur you must be dependent on yourself. It matters not how strait the gate, how charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. This is an example of how throughout the poem Henley portrays the existentialist belief. Henley will not let adversity stand in his way, he realizes that to overcome all obstacles he must do it on his own. Denisovich is faced with lots of hardships while being held captive. Ivan Denisovich uses existentialism to make it through the suffering. He admires other inmates who only rely on themselves and always remain dignified. Those who try to cheat there way through life and allow themselves to become savage because they are treated savagely, he looks down upon because they let there unfortunate circumstances run there lives. Both the narrator in Invictus and Ivan Denisovich are characters who are interchangeable because of there beliefs. The idea of existentialism allows both characters to rise above what has made life difficult for them individually. By pushing themselves over whatever is holding them back, they feel better about life and there are able to overcome more than people who sit back and wait for others to help them. Existentialism plays a big part in both the poem Invictus and in One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich. There beliefs allowed the...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

ANTH Final Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

ANTH Final Paper - Essay Example â€Å"Men average 152 centimeters (5 feet) in height and women 141 centimeters (4.5 feet). They are frequently referred to as pygmies, a term more correctly used for the central African Pygmy populations.† (Early & Headland, 1998, p.3-4) They have traditionally been known as aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippine rain forest. For centuries they have been largely and hunter/gather culture using bows and arrows to hunt large game. Over the past hundred years they have interacted more with the Philippine civilization, especially the lowlanders and have worked as casual farm laborers as well. Many of Southeast Asias Negrito populations are quickly disappearing. There number have decreased dramatically in just over the past ten years and continue to decline. In fact, several Negrito populations in the Andaman Islands have disappeared completely in the past one hundred years. â€Å"The 10 Negrito dialect groups in peninsular Malaysia number only 1,800 today, far fewer than in the last century. The Negrito groups in Thailand have declined to only 300 people.† (Early & Headland, 1998, p.3-4) Ecology: Luzon has the largest number of Negritos, who reside in the mountains of Zambales, Bataan, Western Pampanga, Western Tarlac, Southwestern Pangasinan, and in the Sierra Madre range, which rims the eastern side of Luzon. The Negritos of the Sierra Madre refer to themselves and their language by the term Agta. The larger Philippine population usually refer to them as "Dumagats.† The Agta have a population of around 9,000 and they are divided into 10 ethnolinguistic groups. The Agta themselves distinguish two types of groups within their communities. The first group resides in the mountains quite a distance from both the coastline and the towns. This population relies more on hunting and gathering and have very little contact with the Filipino lowland farmers. The second group lives much closer to farming settlements and interacts on a